11 Nervous System

11 Nervous System - The Nervous System Ch 11 Face...

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The Nervous System Ch 11 Neurons in the temporal lobe respond to particular features of faces Damage to the temporal lobe can cause loss of their ability to recognize and identify familiar faces. This disorder is called prosopagnosia. When the appearance of a face is changed, neurons in the temporal lobe generate less activity. Face Recognition Don’t these faces look the same?
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Basic Functions: 1. Sensory input – monitoring stimuli occurring inside and outside the body 2. Integration – interpretation of sensory input 3. Motor output – response to stimuli by activating effector organs Nervous System Controlling and communicating system of the body
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Nervous vs. Endocrine System Similarities: They both monitor stimuli and react so as to maintain homeostasis. Differences: The NS is a rapid, fast-acting system whose effects do not always persevere. The ES acts slower via hormones and its actions are usually much longer lasting.
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Major Divisions of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Paired spinal and cranial nerves Carry messages to and from the spinal cord and brain Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Integration and command center Sensory (Afferent) Divison Going toward…. . Motor (Efferent) Division Going Away…. Sensory Visceral Autonomic Somatic
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Conscious control of skeletal muscles Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System Involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands Motor Efferent Divison “FIGHT OR FLIGHT” SYMPATHETIC NS “REST AND DIGEST” PARASYMPATHETIC NS What organs do these two responses above activate?
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Histology of Nervous Tissue The two principal cell types of the nervous system are: 1. Neurons – excitable cells that transmit electrical signals 2. Neuroglia – support neurons to help them function 1 2 http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ein.html How was Einstein’s brain different?
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Neuroglia 6 types of supporting cells 4 are found in the CNS: 1. Astrocytes Regulate extracellular brain fluid composition Promote tight junctions to form blood-brain barrier What is the blood-brain barrier? 1. Microglia Specialized immune cells that act as the macrophages of the CNS Why is it important for the CNS to have its own army of immune cells? 2. Ependymal Cells Line ventricles of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord Some are ciliated which facilitates the movement of cerebrospinal fluid Help form choroid plexuses that secrete CSF 1. 2. 3.
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Neuroglia 4. Oligodendrocytes Produce the myelin sheath which provides the electrical insulation for certain neurons in the CNS
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Satellite cells Surround clusters of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS Unknown function 2. Schwann cells Form myelin sheaths around the larger nerve fibers in the PNS. Vital to neuronal
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11 Nervous System - The Nervous System Ch 11 Face...

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