chap3 celltrans

chap3 celltrans - Chapter 3 Cells 7 6 5 4 1 3 2 Important...

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Chapter 3 Cells
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Important Organelles Plasma Membrane → Separates the cell exterior from the cell interior (cytoplasm). Nucleus → Membrane bound structure that contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) which is the set of instructions for the synthesis of all the body’s proteins. Mitochondria → Structure bound by a double membrane and the site at which the energy stored in sugars and other organic molecules is transferred to ATP, the chemical which acts as the “currency” for energy in the cell. Ribosomes → Not bound by a membrane. Sites of protein synthesis. May be free – floating in the cytoplasm – or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum.
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Important Organelles Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum → Membranous set of tubes with ribosomes studded along its surface. Site of the synthesis of proteins that are destined to be exported from the cell or for the plasma membrane Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum → ER w/o the attached ribosomes. Site of cellular lipid synthesis, among other things. Golgi Apparatus → Membrane bound organelle responsible for determining the direction of proteins synthesized in the rough ER. Lysosomes → Membrane bound organelle that houses digestive enzymes that can be used to break down ingested toxins or worn out cell parts.
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Important Organelles Centrioles – organize a mitotic spindle during mitosis Nucleoli – in the center of nucleus, site of ribosome synthesis Peroxisome – membranous sac of oxidase enzymes, can detoxify many toxic substances Cytoskeletal Elements
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How do proteins move through the cell in their creation and modification? Nucleus Transcription – transfer of genetic information from DNA to mRNA mRNA Free Ribosome Site of Protein Production Protein ? Golgi Apparatus (UPS Office) Modify, concentrate and package Proteins Translation- transfer of genetic information encoded in mRNA to amino acids to build proteins
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Plasma Membrane The PM separates the cell interior (the cytoplasm) from the cell exterior (extracellular or interstitial fluid). Both the cytoplasm and the ECF are aqueous, i.e., they’re both water based. The PM is a bilayer (double layer) of phospholipids. A phospholipid is a molecule made of a glycerol backbone to which 2 fatty acids and one phosphorous-containing group are attached. 2 PM’s as seen w/ an electron microscope Cartoon representation of the PM
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Definitions: HYDROPHOBIC – refers to molecules or parts of molecules that interact only with non-polar molecules (WATER PHOBIC) HYDROPHILLIC – interact with water and charged particles
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In this molecule, we see the glycerol backbone (tan), the 2 fatty acids yellow), and the phosphorous-containing group (purple). The glycerol and fatty acids are nonpolar – they do not dissolve in water ( hydrophobic ). The phosphorus-containing group is polar – it does dissolve in water ( hydrophilic ). So, the phospholipid has a polar portion and a nonpolar portion (a portion that can dissolve in water and a portion that cannot). Because of this, we say that phospholipids are amphipathic .
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chap3 celltrans - Chapter 3 Cells 7 6 5 4 1 3 2 Important...

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