chp21 - 21 The Respiratory System 1. Describe the general...

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21 The Respiratory System 1. Describe the general functions of the respiratory system. 1. Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy, of the respiratory tract and related organs. 3. Explain mechanism of pulmonary ventilation. 4. Identify pulmonary air volumes and capacities. 5. Explain the mechanism of gas exchange in lungs and tissues 6. Explain the mechanisms of gas transport in the blood 7. Describe the control of pulmonary ventilation.
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Processes of Respiration Pulmonary ventilation – moving air into and out of the lungs (breathing) External respiration – gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood Internal respiration – gas exchange between systemic blood and tissues; function of circulatory system Cellular respiration – occurs in mitochondria of cell
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Respiratory System Functions Extensive surface area for external respiration Ventilation of the exchange surface Protection of the respiratory surface from dehydration, temperature extremes and infection Sound production Receptors for olfactory stimulation
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Respiratory zone Site of gas exchange (external respiration) Consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli Conducting zone Tubes for air to reach the respiratory surfaces and warm and filter air Includes all other respiratory structures (e.g., nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea) Respiratory muscles Diaphragm, external intercostals and internal intercostals can play a role in some types of breathing (Promote ventilation)
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Figure 22.1
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Nose Functions and Anatomy Functions:
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Paranasal Sinuses Cavities in the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary bones Lighten the skull and help to warm and moisten the air Mucus drains into nasal cavity
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Pharynx Connects nasal cavity to larynx and esophagus Skeletal muscle 3 regions Nasopharynx – Air only Goblet cells produce mucus Swallowing- uvula closes off nasopharynx Auditory tubes open into each side Oropharynx – Food and Air Laryngopharynx – Air and Food Where food and air splits Air moves into the: Food moves into the:
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Larynx (Voice Box) Functions:
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Larynx (Voice Box) Figure 22.5 From superior view
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Vocal Production Speech intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing the glottis Pitch determined by the length and tension of the vocal cords Loudness depends upon the force at which the air rushes across the vocal cords Other structures involved in language: Laryngitis:
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Trachea Connects larynx to the primary bronchi
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chp21 - 21 The Respiratory System 1. Describe the general...

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