Charts for Chapter 8 & 9

Charts for Chapter 8 & 9 - EEEEED ualu'k .ong...

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Unformatted text preview: EEEEED ualu'k .ong EXPOSCS a person [0 IWlCe as much radiation. TABLE 9.3 Properties of Ionizing Radiation and Shielding Required Property Travel distance in air T155113 depth Shielding Alpha (tr) particie 2—4 cm 0.05 mm Paper, clothing Beta ([3) particle 200~300 cm 4—5 nun Heavy Clothing, lab coats, gloves Gamma (1/) ray 500 11] 50 cm or more Lead, thick concrete Typical source RadiuanZG Canbnn—l4 Tmflinniiumrggm TABLE 8.? Naming Common Acids Acid Name of Acid Anion Name of Anion HC] Hydrochloric acid C17 Chloride HBr Hydrobromic acid Br7 Bromide HNO3 Nitric acid N 03 7 Nitrate HN02 Nitrous acid N 027 Nitrite H2504 Sulfuric acid 3042* Sulfate H2303 Sulfurous acid 80327 Sulfite H2CO3 Carbonic acid 0032‘ Carbonate H3PO4 Phosphoric acid 1903’ Phosphate HClOg, Chloric acid C103 7 Chlorate HC102 Chlorous acid C102 7 Chlorite HC2H302 Acetic acid C2H302 7 Acetate i, sompan'son of [H3OTJ1 [0H7], and their corresponding pH valucs is given in Table 8.5, 'ABLE 8.5 A Comparison of [H3Oi'], [OH], and Corresponding pH Values [1130*] pH OH'] 3° 0 107:4 :J" 1 0’13 L)’2 2 0’12 J73 3 0* Acidic ‘ .J" 4 0’10 IS 5 04" 0"" 6 0-8 77 a J, '0 ’ 0 Neutral 1173 8 0’6 10*? 9 0*5 H2C03 + H20 <— H30+ + HCO,’ Bl°°d H2C03 + on’ —> H20 + HCOg" FCC: 40 “Hg HZCO3 2.4 mmoles/L of plasma . In the body, the concentration of carbonic acid is closely associated HCOBe 24 moles/L of plasma with the partial pressure of C02. Table 8.7 lists die normal values for pH 7 3577 4; Ema emission Change in Mass Number Radiation Symbol {aha emission §He *4 Beta emission .96 0 Pisitron emission +99 0 0 We; Buffers in the Blood The arterial blood has a normal pH of 7.35—7.45. If changes in H30+ lower the pH below 6.8 or raise it above 80, cells cannot function properly and death may result. In our cells, C02 is contin- ually produced as an end product of cellular metabolism. Some C02 is carried to the lungs for elimination, and the rest dissolves in body fluids such as plasma and saliva, forming carbonic acid. As a weak acid, carbonic acid dissociates to give bicarbonate and HSOT. More of the anion HCO3’ is supplied by the kidneys to give an important buffer system in the body fluid: the HZCO3/HCOf buffer. H20 C02 + H20 2 H2C03 Z H3O+ + HC03’ g Excess H30+ entering the body fluids reacts with the HCO3’ and excess OH’ reacts with the carbonic acid. more H3O+, lowering the pH. This condition is called acidask Difficulty with ventilation or gas diffusion can lead to respuaiIE acidosis, which can happen in emphysema or when the medal; 1" the brain is affected by an accident or depressive drugs, called alkalosis. Excitement, trauma, or a high temperature 3:} cause a person to hyperventilate, which expels large amount: if C02. As the partial pressure of C02 in die blood falls below mom. HZC03 forms C02 and H20, decreasing the [H3O'l'] and raising In! pH. Table 8.8 lists some of the conditions that lead to changes i: 32 blood pH and some possible treatments. The kidneys also reg ' H30Jr and HCO3‘ components, but more slowly than the adjusf made by the lungs through ventilation. TABLE 8.7 Normal Values for Blood Buffer in Arterial BLE 9.4 Mass Number and Atomic Number Changes due to Radiation Cha r: ya in Atomic Number Change in Neutron Number —2 71 +1 A decrease in the C02 leads to a high blood pH, 3 conrbm arterial blood. If the C02 increases, it produces more H1CO3 and TABLE 8.8 Acidosis and Alkalosis: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments Respiratory Acidosis: C02 T pH l Symptoms: Failure to ventilate, suppression of breathing, disorientation, weakness, coma Lung disease blocking gas diffusion (cg, emphysema, pneumonia, bronchitis, and asthma); depression of respiratory center by drugs, cardiopulmonary arrest, stroke, poliomyelitis, or nervous system disorders Causes: Treatment: Correction of disorder, infusion of bicarbonate - Respiratory Alkalosis: C02 l pH l Symptoms: Increased rate and depth of breathing, numbness, lightheadedness, tetany Hyperventilation because of anxiety, hysteria, fever, exercise; reaction to drugs such as salicylate, quinine, and antihistamines; condiaons causing hypoxia (eg, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and heart disease) Causes: Treatment: Ehndnanon of anxietyeproducing state, rebreathing into a paper bag Metabolic Acidosis; H+ T pH l Symptoms: Increased ventilation, fatigue, confusion Causes: Renal disease, including hepatitis and curth increased acid production in diabetes me?" hyperthyroidism, alcoholism, and starvac'J: loss of alkali in diarrhea; acid retention in renal failure Treatment: Sodium bicarbonate given orally, dialysis for renal failure, insulin treatment for diabetic ketosis Metabolic Alkalosis: HJ’ l pH i Symptoms: Depressed breathing, apathy, confusion Causes: Vomiting, diseases of the adrenal glands, ingestion of excess alkali Treatment: Infusion of saline solution, treatment of underlying diseases SLE 8.2 Some Characterfstics of Acids and Bases racterisfic iracfion: Arrhenius ; faction: Brflnsted—Lowry Eectrol ytes Taste 9&1 Litmus E‘henolphthalein Seutraljzation _ Acids Produce H+ Donate H+ Yes Sour May sting Red Colorless Neutrafize bases Bases Produce 0H7 Accept H4r Yes Bitter, chalky Soapy, slippery Blue Pink Neutralize acids ...
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Charts for Chapter 8 &amp;amp; 9 - EEEEED ualu'k .ong...

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