Chapter3AND4 - B iological and environmental contexts of...

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Biological and environmental contexts of Psychopathology (Chapter 3) Structure of the brain Central nervous system (CNS): brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system : nerves that transmit info to and from the CNS Somatic System: Sensing and voluntary movement Autonomic System: regulation of arousal and emotion Nervous system and Risk for Disordered functioning: Prenatal influences Perinatal influences Complicated birth, anoxia Later influences after birth causing brain damage Accidents, illness, malnutrition, poisoning Genetic influences (single vs. multiple genes) Heritability Gene-environment interaction : differences among individuals in sensitivity to experience due to differences in genes o Variations in certain genes lead to differential reactions to stressful events Gene-environment correlation : genetic differences explain some variance in exposure to different environments o E.g., we select environments based on some genetic predisposition o A shy child may isolate himself and avoid interacting with others Epigenetics – study of how the environment can impact which genes are expressed. How do we study genetic influence? Twin studies - Concordance rates: how often both members of an MZ or DZ twin pair have a particular disorder Schizophrenia: 44% Mood disorders: ~70% MZ vs. 25% DZ
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Behaviorism = should study “observable” behavior only - Focus on response tendencies rather than private events (e.g., thoughts, feelings) Development occurs through learning & reinforcement - Classical conditioning: previously neutral stimulus now elicits a response - Operant conditioning: + consequences strengthen behavior while – ones weaken it - Observational learning: acquire behavior through observation Classical Conditioning Creating a response to a stimulus that was not previously there Little Albert White rat + loud noise = fear of white rat Operant Learning Thorndike and Skinner - Positive consequences strengthen a behavior and negative consequences weaken it - Adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are shaped through operant learning Observational Learning Bandura and Social Learning Observational learning = behaviors are acquired through the observation of others perform them What makes a “model”?
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Chapter3AND4 - B iological and environmental contexts of...

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