And Then He Hit Me!

And Then He Hit Me! - ‘Flncl'lheh He Hit Me, T 00 ashamed...

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Unformatted text preview: ‘Flncl'lheh He Hit Me, T 00 ashamed or too scared to speak up, tens of thousands of 50—plus Victi ms of domestic Violence suffer in silence By David France I Photography by Mary Ellen Mark linost from the start of her second marriage, Hcdy Schweitzer felt she had to choose between two painful options. She could endure her hus— band's violent beatings and hurri- canesol'eriticism, which shook her confidence and left her self-doubt— i115r despite the fact that she was a successful health-care professional. Or she could do somethingshe cen— sidercd far worse: admit she'd made a huge mistake by marrying him in the first place. So from 1993 until a year ago, she tried to cov— er up the abuse. even from her own grown children. She lied when friends and colleagues saw the cheeks enlarged by blows and the ankles gnarled from being slammed in car doors, or when doctors inquired about her shattered eardrums and broken fingers, now healed at awkward angles. She pretended ntnhing,r was amiss. Unfortunately, so did almost everybody else. All the while, Hcdy (pictured on p age 75) thought she was probany among the world’s oldest victims ofdomcstie vio- lence. “I thought this is something that happens to you ngand inexperienced girls. Not somebody in their 50s, not a grand mother," she says one morning as sun spills through the stained glass windows ofherliving room in Milwaukee. She glances at pictures ofher children and grandchildren, crowd- ed on a bookshelf. "The overwhelming thing for me. as an old- er person. was being ashamed, because this shouldn‘t he happening to me. I should imowbetl‘t‘r." Hedy may feel that hers was a singular shame but, sadly, it isn’t. (Io ntrary to popular belief, domestic abuse d1 acsn‘t hap— pcn only to younger. underprivileged women. It affects all classes and races and every age grou p. {According to a J as— tice Department analysis of intimate-partner violence in 2001, the latest year for which statistics are available. 85 per— cent of the victims are woman But until recently even experts on domestic violence used to think the problem tapered off by age 50. That opinion became acce ptcd wisdom because few older women show up at shelters or call police. Now. experts and advocates notonly are realizing there are unique factors keeping older victims from seeking help but are increasineg aware ofpcoplejust like Hedy who are silent- ly enduring violence—sonic into their 70s and 80s. “It’s very hard for you to think about." says Jeanne Mcurer, a nun who is codireetor ofWoman’s Place. a drop—i n center for battered women in St. Louis that serves older victims of abusu, one of the few in the nation. “I couldn’t imagine my father abus— ing my mother, or my grandmother being abused. You can‘t think ofit that way. But boy. there’sa lotofit." Exactly how much ofit is hard to determine. Estimates vary widely. In studies conducted in the late 1990s, betWeen 4 per- cent and 6 percent ofolder North Americans reported they were in a relationship they considered physically abusive. If the surveys are correct, and the percentages remain constant with overall lmpulation growth. that would mean a whopping 3 million to 5 million Americans over 50 (outof85 million) are currently in abusive relationships. Some surveys suggest from 150,000 to 500,000 victims ofelder abuse :1 year. while one group ofl'esearehers. extrapolating from their landmark suwey of all types of elder abuse in Boston in 19885113 vests the number could be more than a million. ()ne depressing fact is indisputable: as the population ol'SU— plus Americans increases, so will the number of victims of abuse in that vulnerable demogmphic. “it’s a hidden epidemic," says Daniel Reingold, president and chiefexecutive officer ofthe Hebrew Home for the Aged in Riverdale. New York, who compares the current awareness wwwaarpmasgnzineerg MRP l 73 of late-life domestic violence to the nascent domestic violence and child—abuse movements 2 5 years ago. “Which is to say, we don’t have any agreed-upon definitions, and intervention is sporadic and uneven.” The directors ofwomen’s centers and programs for the aging are now serambli rig to iind ways to reach this population. But traditional responses, like shelters and hot lines, don’t seem to be makingthe critical connection with older victims. Around the country, according to a survey by the National Clearing- house on Abuse in Later Life, few shelters promote themselves to older women or are equipped to h andle their special needs, from accessible facilities to segregation from the many youn 9, children who often turn shelters into daycare centers. Yet even these specialized programs aren’t attracting those in need, and advocates are beginning to wonder why. As Michele Waite, manager ofscnior services for the City of Longmont, Colorado, puts it, “We know it’s happening. Wejust h aven’t Found a mean— ingful way to reach older women.” The more creative the approach, it would appear, the more success ful. “We advertised an elder-—domestic—violence support group, but nobody came," says Sharon Youngerman, director of a well—known battered women’s program in Orange Park, Florida, called Quigley House, which closed its elder shelter last year, finding that older women preferred the support they got from younger battered women in the main shelter. “But when we relaunched it as a qu il t—maki ng group sponsored by Quigley House, then people came.” l.)esigned to appeal to older women, the quilt—making group offered a cover for victims otherwise unwilling to come forward. The first group of 12 finished a quilt last summer after two years. “'l‘h el‘e’s a lot more shame and embarrassment” among old- er victims, Youngerman explains. “We’re talking about peo— ple raised in a generation when the wife took care of the family; she was basically raised to do what her husband said. He was the breadwinncr, and ifshe didn’t like it, she had to basically buck up and be quiet. So talking about it is admittin 1' that th ey {in led —th at they displeased the husband.” “The elder] y population is totally secretive about this.” says Ann Nevin, a counselor in private practice in Colorado who treats older victims. "A lot ofit has to do with the cultural and social mores established for the people who grew up in the ’20s anti ’30s: you married for life and you stuck things out.” ccording to the National Committee for the Pre— vention of El der Abuse, an association of advocates, researchers, and professionals, the problem of domestic violence in later life divides into three main types. The first scenario involves a new rela- tionship. No matter how mature they are, no matter h ow well they think they know their new partner, intimates can be in for a terrible surprise. It’s an all—too—common problem, say experts. “We see many second, or even third, marriages where she had a perfectly wonderful first marriage but ends up with a real loser," says Pat Holland, coordinator of the Old— er Abuscd Women’s Program at the Milwaukee W’omen’s Center, which last year opened two rooms specifically for old- ?4 I AARP Jantiary&¥ebruary£006 er clients in its shelter. “A lot oftimes she’s so embarrassed she doesn’t want anybody to know.” A second category, encompassing a seen'iingly growing number 0 fvictims, is known as “late-onset domestic vi olence,” in which a long, ordinary marriage unexpectedly leads to a coda o fbrutality and fear. There may have been a strained rela— tionship or emotional abuse earlier that got worse when a pan— ner aged. 1When abuse begins, it is likely to be triggered by retirement, the changing role of family members, sexual changes, or disability. For example, one spouse’s ailing health—the onset of incontinence, for example—can trigger verbal or physical violence by his or her partn er. Brain impairments common in old like those brought on by stroke, alcoholism, or Alzheimer’s disease, can also herald aggressive behavior in t'Jl'i'lCt‘WiSC pl ac id marriages. A per- centage ofAlzhci me1"s patients turn suspicious, irritable, or even physically violent toward their loved ones. In one study nearly (:0 percent of people caring for a spouse with dementia report the patient has turned to some form of aggressive behavior. Jacquelyn Treiber, 75, a horse breeder in Farmvillc, North Carolina, says a series of small strokes and early Alzheimer’s were the likely cause for her husband’s aggression toward her, which included threatening to order her in to shock treatment and trying to have her committed for psychiatric obseivation. Because her husband was a retired family practice physician, authorities easily accepted his groundless allegations and dis— missed her many objections. He called the police a dozen times, never failing to greet them in his hospital scrubs as he filed assault charg is against her. “It was like he had PMS. [Every 10 or 12 days he would go into a rage,” she recalls. “I could be sitting here watchingtel— evision and some name would come up-—thc name of some- body he didn‘t like—and he would pick up the phone and call 911 and claim 1 pushed him, and he would put me in jail overnight! [‘11] not kidding.” I lis own diagnoses didn't come until years later, after he was declared incompetent and con» f1 ned to a nursing home. He died last May. “ I ’1! tell you what, it was a long, tough journey," Jacquelyn says. A third category— perh aps the most heart— rendng cases of all—involves violence that begins in early marriage and coli- tinues for decades without ever triggering notice. Advocates call this phenomenon “domestic violence grown olt ” and a study published in the Journal ofElticrAbuse Er Neglect notes it is by far the most common sort. 'l'hese women were missed by the battered women‘s movement, which began establish- ing shelters and safe houses in the late 1970s and today oper— ates morc than 2,500 progran‘ts and facilities across the country, Now, in later life, battered women are no more like- ly to reach out fol'hclp than in their youth. “( )lder battered women have the same fears today that they had as younger women 30 years ago: I have. an obligatitm to my partner; who is going to take care of me?” says .Iill Morris, who directs the public policy office at the National Coalition Against Domestic. Violence. “I’ve heard anecdotes from women who say, ‘l’m 70, he’s 78, we're both going to die soon. Why don’t [just stick itout?’ It’s awful to hear. " Hedy Scl'IWeltzar. 55. endured 11 years of sewage beatings that left her sulcldal and anoraxlc before finally seeking help at a woman‘s center. “I couldn‘t Imagine start- lng overagalnPshe says. ‘6 by did I marry him in the first pl ace? I don’t have a real good answer for that,” says Audrey Miller, now 80 and happily ensconced at an assisted living com- munityin St. Paul. “After awhile I didn’t love him, that’s for sure.” Audrey’s talking about Jim Miller, a handsome factory worker from St. Paul whom she married in 1962. Pictures of the newlyweds posing in front of their first home suggest they were happy. But the first attack came only a few months later. “1 think it was somethingI had said or done, or didn’t do, that he didn’t like, and he hauled off and hit me in the face,” she recalls. “I landed on the bed, and he came and got on top of me and started to beat inc. 1' just pounded away, too, but he had more strength than I did. And it didn’t end up good for me.” That’s an understatement. Over the next 41 years, although no one knew it, Jim’s attacks increased in frequency and ; cruelty—making Audrey a classic example of domestic vio~ : lencc grown old. Once he caught her fingers in his car window ' and let her loose only when her screams drew a crowd. Some— how she found hersel f keeping it all a secret— from her moth— er, whose disappointment she dreaded, and even from his children from a previous marriage. (They had no children of their own.) She camouflaged her bruises. But her psycholog— ical wounds were painfully visible. Jim made her believe she was dumb and fat, though she slim med down to a fashion model’s stature, and rendered hcr totally dependent on him. He refused to let her see friends or family members alone. He had the telephone removed from the house to perfect her Where f0 Tum Domestic violence among older people is underreported in part because the sufferers don‘t knowwhere to seek help. The following resources can steer victims or their concerned loved ones toward the appropriate local services or perhaps lend a sympathetic ear. Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men Based in Harmony.Maine, this free service was started five years ago by Jan Brown. who had seen some male friends suffer domestic abuse. She now gets an estimated 400 calls a month. many from men who. Brown says. some— times “just want somebody } to talk to and believe them.” ‘ She'll then refer them to help nearby, first checking to make sure the assistance is sympa— thetic to male victims (888— Y—HELPLINE. or 888—743—5754: www.domestlcabuse helplineorg}. Hot Lines National Domestic Violence Hotline This toll—free number, run by the Texas Council on Family Violence, offers crisis interven— tion and refers victimswor friends orfamily ofvictims— to adult protective—services I organizations across the l country. The line.whlch gets I approximately l6,DOD calls a month, is anonymous,confi— dential, and accessible 24 hours a day—with translators available for more thanl40 languages (BOO—YQQ—SAFE, or 800 —i’99—7233; TTY BOO—7'87— 3224; wwwridvhorg). ?6 l AARP January&Februa_ry2006 sense of isolation. He. wouldn’t even let her go to the grocery store without him until he was too ill to accompany her. lie made her account for every minute she spent away from hiln. After the first few years he refused to allow her in their bed- room, so she curled up on the sofa every night for all these decades. “I mean, he was a mean one,” she says. “He was mean.” She prayed that tilne would temper Jim’s moods, though it never did. Retirement, when it came, seemed to make him angrier. Even when he. sank into a feeble old age, he would strike at her with his cane, regularly renewing an ugly bruise on her left shoulder. “I guess whenI was older and he was ill, I thought it would stop,” she admits, rubbing her shoulder. “He would take his cane and hold it up and say, ‘I’m going to kill you.’ That’s one of his favorites: ‘I’m going to kill you.’ ” Audrey might not have said anything until her doctor, dur— ing a regular checkup just a few years ago, asked her if she was experiencing trouble at home—alerted, possibly, by her sad demeanor. “I thought, “Well, nobody had ever asked before.’ So I told him, ‘Yes, he has been bothering me for a long time.’ ” Doctors and hospital employees are perhaps in the best posi— tion to screen for domestic abuse, but given the curtain of secrecy surrounding the issue, it can be a detective’sjob to get to the truth, says Carmel Dyer, M.D., a geriatrician who is an associate professor at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston and specializes in issues ofeldcr abuse. “It’s hard to pick up, i must say, because the offender looks very, very concerned about their wife or husband. It’s very hard to sort out.” For Audrey, finally unloading the secret brought a kind of liberation she hadn’t felt in years. Through the doctor, .' National Clearinghouse on , Abuse in Later Life (NCALL) Q A project of the Wisconsin Coali— and Survivors {ASAAPS} I tion Against Domestic Violence, This Wisconsin—based group is g the NCALL’s Domestic Abuse in concerned with protecting ' Later Life Resource Directory lists both the elderly and the dis— support groups, adult protective— abled, with sensitivity toward services offices. and shelters by sufferers of both genders. It state. For a copycontact 608- offers an online monthly col— 255—0539 or www.nca|l.us.0r umn called It Takes a Village, a download it at www.ncall.us/ practical discussion of how resourceshtml. concerned people can help neighbors and friends {414- 540—64561wwwasaapsorg). Organizations American Society of Adult Abuse Professionals National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) The NCADV website has a sec— tion called Getting Help for those in an abusive relationship: it offers a safety plan, advice about online privacy (some abusers will try to track their spouse's/part— ' ner‘s activities). how to hire an ' attorneyand more {303~839- 1852; wwwncadvprg). —Chrlstlna lanzito National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) The federally funded NCEA in Washington, DC, has access to a vast store of information on elder abuse. Call for a free brochure. “Fifteen Questions zit Answers on Elder Abuse" (202—898—2586: mvwelderabusecenterorg}. she was introduced to the local St. Paul Domestic Abuse intervention Project. Bernice Sisson, the program’s legal advocate litll' older battered women, secretly drove her to weekly meetings. But Audrey still didn’t leave her husband. “I’m kinda loyal, I guess you'd say. it was bad, But I endured it." By early .2003, Jim Miller was very ill with heart trouble, high blood pressure, and diabetes, and although he became totally reliant on Aud rcy. his physical abuse never ebbed. On At igust 17 ot‘that year. he put his arm around Audrey‘s shoulder. “i heard him say-1‘1 l: we you ,’ which didn’t mean two cents to me." Audrey says. It was only the second or tb ird time he had ever said those words. And not much later he died. “I was immediately relieved," she recalls. "Forty—one years. to be free From that? [ sa id. ‘i-ie's dcadf' " Right away she began putting his things in the garbage. \-\'t n'kingweli into the night; “You can see how much I liked him,” she says now. “we were all relieved,” admits Sisson. “We really worried that he might do what he kept promising to do." '[‘oda_x_=‘, Audrey is once again sieepingon a bed. tier one— betlroom apartment is spare and neat— her one indulgence is a vast collection ofvideotapes, mostly ofthe action—Flick variety. “I always worried about being lonely.” she says, "but I’m not! I like my apartment. I like to be here by myself. I like to be alone." Older battarars can be more resismnt to counsel- Ins. they behave in a man’s authorityover his wife. says Craig May- field, 57. A recovered abuser himsetf, Craig now Is a facilitator for a court- mandated abuse rs‘ group. Ithough it occurs less often. men also fall prey to domestic violence. But while an estimated 15 per— centofall the vicrims t‘ifintimate—partner violence are men, the number of reported woman—on—man incidents is nettl igible. The reason may be that no matter how bad the abuse, men in their prime are typically able to withstand the assaults ofwomen. A more likelyexplanation is that men simply are unwilling to report that they’ve been assaulted by a woman. But as they grow older, men can become vulnerable. Sometimes, but not frequently, their abused Spouses might simply be turning the tables. An unscientific sampling sug— gests that another likely scenario involves same—sex or late— life relationships turned abusive. In an example of the former, a man in his 80s took shelter at. the Domestic Older Victims Empowerment and Safety Program in Phoenix sev— eral years ago utter a severe beating landed him in the hospi— tal, says Alice Ghareib, the agency's director. His assailant was another man, whom he called an “acquaintance” but who program staffers Felt was likely an intimate partner. it can be extremely di lTlCLilt for older gay people to he can— did about their relationship to their abuser. “This is the gen— eration that was institutionalized, discriminated against, battered by society” for being homosexual, says Loree (Took-Daniels, founder of the American Society of Adult Abuse Professionals and Survivors. A late—life relationship with a younger person can also lead to the victimization of an older man. At the Hebrew Home’s l-Iarryand Jeanette WeinbergCenter for Elder Abuso Preven~ tion. officials recall a case oi'an older man who took a much younger foreign bride, only to find her manipulating his med- ications. He was admitted to the hospital numerous times be— fore finding his way into their shelter. “It appears she wasjust in it for the immigration status,” says Daniel Reingold. the Hebrew I'Iome's president. The Weinbergr Center is helping arrange a divorce and a restraining order. But for some men, as with women, it is possible to have lived through an abusive relationship for years without any— body’s catching on. “1 should have known better after the first time," says Charles—not his real name—a "21—year—old man who lives near Greenvilie, North Carolina, and who asked to remain anony- mous because nobody in his small town knows his history. Even his three children—ages St], 45, and sit—are unaware of most of his travails. he says. A year or more at her their wedding in 1955, in the middle of an argument of the sort that marked their marriage, his wife hurled a cup ofsteatning coffee at him, causingblisterson his hand that required medical attention. It went downhill fro In there. “She gave me four or five black eyes duringthe course ofmy matriag *. and she shut my leg up in the car onetime," fracturing his hone, he says. "I kept thinking it would become better, but it never did.” Charles says he put up with his wife’s hostilities for the chil- dren's sake. “She was as good a mother as ever walked on the face ofthe earth." he says. “She loved them to death} was the only thing that bothered her." liy the (continued onpage 105) wwtxraarpmagazineorg AARP : T? Domestic Violence (corItinnedfitnn page 75"} time the children were out of the house. relations reached a new low. Charles developed a theory that his ' ying to drive. him From the. house lortmaneial reasons. He hunger: teaaciouslyi. but in their-home she exer— cised complete control. Except for attending to his immediate needs. he not safe from her at: 01 s. The last time she .ssanlted him it was at his door. wh ieh he opened it e her bran- dishingalmife. Charles called the police that nie t. touching oft; ' ' ifeventsthatenth ed with his wife‘s leaving home two ars ago after nearh,-r 49 years of m :11“- I me. taking with her much of their savings and a brand-new car. He says he has no regrets about the choices he made. “Il you don't think I’m L‘I‘: _\,-' alread_ yotn ill when 'otlliearthls. says Charle eeause 1f] had to live my life [)VL‘I and go through the same thing for 49 years, if I had to choose between a good mother or a good . [would eagoodnmtl‘lerall over again. \ houl children and a family. there is nothing." ustasth'el'e is no e01 «us on e 'aetly how widebprcad the problem isl or how to locate. it. ietims, there is limited agreement on the causes ol'eluer drum-slit: winter and p or it from happe '3'. " ale, Mayfield. 57", a facilitator who runs court—mandated abusers" groups in Milwauk . aye older hatterers can he more re. tant to the counseling program than younger ones. “For the older men. who have hee n aeeustmned to the social messag‘s that required women to st‘ ' at home. he house- never que ting the mans )ri tr. that may . ll he the way they things,” he s - . But their motive Is no different from that of ymmger perpetrators. “Men hatter ause they ea ' ' 13ttl’1L‘}-’ think tr filling their women. That’s what we l . on—hre-lkinqtheir need to con- trol things." (continuedeupt r106) wer.oarprnagazlneorg MRP I 105 Domestic Violence (continuedfi‘om page £05) Mayfield should know. Twenty years ago he was arrested for abusing his wife. A judge ordered him into a - similar treatment group as a Condition ofhis probation. “l began to really see. and to understand," he says. “Up to that point. I was blaming Circum— stances. Blaming anything. She didn‘t do this, she did do that, or she made me mad. I could blame alcohol. But that‘s not why 1 did it. i did itbecausc I could get away with it." How do they get away with it? Most— ly by convincing their spouse that :\ vio- lent marriage is better than nothing, says Melissa Anderson, a psychothe ra— pist at the Institute on Aging in San Francisco. “Even though the marriage is :1 violent and sadistic relationship, in other aspects it is familiar and long- term. And comforting." ed y Schweitzer, who today is major hospital in Milwan» ltee, cannot even remember the first time her husband Jerry hit her. What she does recall is how much she loved him and how deeply he seemed to love her back. a Inedical~surgieal nurse at a : They could sit in a parked car on a Lake ; M ichigan beach and talk into the night. "1 ie was incredibly sweet and caring. He really captivated me." she says. She met him just a few months after her first mat-ring - ended in divorce after 23 - years, leavingher with signi ficanl feel- ings offailure. But it became clear that he suffered wild mood swings and, she soon found out, repeated slides into heroin addic- tion. I le started byberatingher, calling her dumb or fat or ugly. The battery hogan in the second or third year, al- most inIpet't‘ept‘il.1ly: a slap that sent her glasses across the room. an elbow in her ribs. Soon it led to bruises on her arms and puffy lips, which she ex- plained as accidents to family and friends. But it wasn'tlonghefure their tidy home became a full-out war zone. 106 ! AARP .iantiaryi’iFebtoaryE'ODfi Her children by her previous mar- riage could not comprehend her I refusal to leave him. “Over the course . of 11 years shejust keeps taking heat— ings. I'm not being mean, butyou lose respect.” says Gabrielle. 25. Hedy's oldest daughter, who lived with her father growing up. "1 \x-‘ould never let anybm‘ly lay a hand on me.” One particularly severe beating occurred around ’l‘hanltsgiving 2001, during which Jerry snapped one of Hedy‘s fingers by picking up an end table and tl‘n'owint.r it at her. The attack scared her more than any before it, and she finally sought out help from the Milwaukee Women's (lenter. She began attending weekly support-group meetings for older assalll t victim s. "Sh e was way badly off,” remembers Pat Holland, Hedy’s sup- port-group fa ci 1 i tatrn‘. Leaving her husband. though. was not somethng Hedy could even imag- called the police and had his stepfather arrested. Although Jerry reached a settlement on the battery charges, a seriesof parole violations landed him in jail through last September. liedy has filed separation papers and was g‘l'anted a four—year restraining order. “i'm so proud of my mom." says Andy. "i think she's still really lonely; that's not good. But she doesn't have that negativity around her 24 hours a day. Yeah, she might come home to an empty house, but it’s her empty house. Nobody there is getting high and going on a ram page.“ Slowly. Hedy is piecing her life back together again—as a 55—year—old single woman. “It‘s been really hart ." admits. “i kept feeling old, and when you feelold you feel less powerful. it's important to know you can change things. and the older we get. the less we feel we can change. it's been a long she I uphill battle for me. I'm still battling it. inc at the time. “Facinglonelincss in lat~ I e r life is so much more so rious. it a fleets - you so much more deeply. than when you’re young." liedy says. “I couldn't imagine starting over again. 'i‘hinking about facing the world alone was. I guess. more friginening to me than to live with somchi idy who was abusive." That all changed in November 2004. when the situation reached its nadir. In an eariy morningassault. Jerry bru- tally pummeled lledy‘s face, burning her cheek wilh the cigarette he was holding. The force I ifhis hiows almost knocked her offthe stoop in from of theirhome. She fled for school. where ' she was taking Inn-singcourses. As she recalls it, the professor and fellow slu- dents were aghast at her injuries, but it wasn’t until SliL‘ looked at herselfin the mirror that she saw the gravity of what had happened to her. i ier month was blackened and so swollen she couldn‘t tell that drool had been run— ning down her chin. “Finally it made sense,” she says. That morning.r she saw her 21—year— . old son, Andy. who was staying at her - house with his young family. “That was the last Straw." he remembers. lie i But it can be done. and that's a real good feeling." '1 Do vid France '5 latest book is { )ur Fathers fltmdti-'qv,2w4 J. a chronicle ofthc seni— nl—nbnsc crisis in the (.‘ntlmifc Church. .4 filmed adaptation ofthe book. which dined on the Showtime net work. is. being rc— lcascd in Janonn'BOOti on Di ’0. ...
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