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Unformatted text preview: so the 5 assumptions to stay in HW equilibr ium Biology 2 nd Midterm Study Guide I. NEW Variation comes from genetics but can not explain all variation because it was rare, and most observed mutation was known to be bad for organisms I I. Transmission genetics explains how traits are passed from parents to offspring o Includes Mendelian genetics o Includes individuals alleles and genotypes o GENOTYPES are NOT transmitted from parent to offspring only alleles are transmitted from parents to offspring New genotypes form from old genotype parts (alleles) o Mutations add new flash cards to the deck I I I. Population genetics study of genetic variation and its causes within a population and how genetic variation changes over time o Populations of organisms that are of the same species o Concerns the origins and maintenance of generic variation within a population o Patterns and organization of genetic variation within a population o Mechanisms that cause changes in allelic and genetic frequencies across generations within populations EVOLUTION IV. Organic evolution changes in the heritable properties of a population over the course of generations o Changes in allele frequencies over the course of generations o Microevolution evolutionary change within a breeding population or species-> changes that transpire by origin and emergent difference of alleles or genotypes in a population o Macroevolution evolutionary change at and above the population or species level o Natural selection acts on phenotypes and not genotypes WHY?? How come we define evolution as a change in the frequencies of alleles and genotypes when natural selection acts on phenotypes and not genotypes?? Phenotypes are affected by environment, and because these environmental changes are not heritable thus no evolution Why disregard phenotype differences Relationship between phenotypes and genotypes is very complex Interactions between alleles at the same locus Interactions between alleles at the same locus Environmental effects phenotype expressed may vary depending on environment expressed i.e. strong body body builder will not give up big built to son maybe tendency to be well taken care off only Quantitative genetics used to separate out effects of the environment from the effects of genes (some changes in gene frequency arent noticed because there is no phenotype expressed] Only one of the causes of evolution; genetic drift; gene flow; non-random mating; & mutation However Natural selection is the only process that can cause adaptation V. Population Genetics o Population is a group of individuals of the same species that lives and interbreeds in a particular place Individual organisms do not evolve They do not change throughout their lifetimes Evolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population Offspring cannot have same genotype as their parents (unless cloned) Offspring usually get genes from tow parents...
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