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BiologyStudyGuideM1 - 1 Give two definitions of species...

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Organisms that inhabit hard to reach terrain due all of these 1. Give two definitions of species and explain the strengths and weakness of each definition a. Morphological species— individuals are grouped into species based on their physical appearances i. Works well when a species traits are consistent and unique ii. Early taxonomist used morphology to classify species and group families into order and order into a class i.e. homo sapiens iii. Advantages 1. Simple and practical to apply 2. Often reflects evolutionary relationships (similar morphology sometimes due to common genetic ancestry) iv. Disadvantages 1. Method does not work well when a species is higly variable in appearance 2. Different species appear very similar a. Traits need for survival may have evolved independently from each other b. i.e. coral snake, kingsnake, & shovel nosed snake c. i.e. catacae plant (new world) & Europhobia (similar traits to cactus but evolved independently in the world) b. Biological Species concept— groups of actually or potentially interbreeding individuals that can reproduce with other groups i. Advantages— it has a clear biological and evolutionary meaning ii. Disadvantages— difficult to apply in practice 1. Asexual organisms don’t interbreed to reproduce 2. Reproductive barriers hard to recognize a. i.e. 2n diploid plant vs 4n tetraploid plant (look alike but can’t interbreed) b. potential interbreeding doesn’t mean that actual interbreeding between organisms will occur i. i.e. Aulonocara fish can interbreed but won’t on normal circumstances c. Thus no actual species definition, Darwin’s definition d. Each species is a separately evolving lineage that forms a single gene pool 2. Which of the following orders to levels of biodiversity from one that encompasses the most variation in organism characteristics to one that encompasses the Least amount of variation? a. Functional group; ecosystem, species (best choice would have been ecosystem, functional group, species b. Within species always has less genetic variation tan that found in a collection of species (includes within and between species variation) 3. Compare and contrast the following terms: species richness, species evenness and species diversity a. Species richness the number of species in a given area/ community
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b. Species evenness the degree to which species are equally abundant/ equal in relative abundance c. Species diversity a measure that combines both a species richness and a species evenness to assess how diverse a community is; it gives us a metric for comparing communities 4. What would be the effect on an ecological community’s species diversity of halving the number of individuals of the most common species? a. You cannot tell form info given: halving the number of individual of the most common species depends on how relative abundant it is to others (if more relative abundant than species evenness will increase, but if relative abundant less than others than species
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