Unformatted text preview: A selection of some optical glasses with polished optical
surfaces for various applications The Properties of Optical Glass Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg GmbH Schott Series on Glass and Glass Ceramics Science, Technology, and Applications Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics
Fibre Optics and Glass Integrated Optics
The Properties of Optical Glass
Thin Films on Glass
Electrochemistry of Glasses and Glass Melts
Including Glass Electrodes
Surface Analysis of Glasses,
and Glass Ceramics, and Coatings
Analysis of the Composition and Structure
of Glass and Glass Ceramics
ISBN 3-540-58610-5 Hans Bach
Editors The Properties
of Optical Glass
With 161 Figures, 62 Tables,
and 2 Fold-out Diagrams i Springer Editors:
Dr. Hans Bach
Dr. Norbert Neuroth
Schott Glas, Hattenbergstr. 10
D-5S122 Mainz, Germany Second Corrected Printing 1998
ISBN 978-3-642-57769-7 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-57769-7 CIP-data applied for
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995, 1998 Originally published by Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York in 1995, 1998
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1995, 1998
The use of designations, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even
in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use.
The type designations applied to optical glasses are the Type Designations for Optical
Glasses which have been developed by and are industrial property rights of Schott,
e.g. BaK 50, BK 7, FK 5, LaK 13, SF 6, SK 16. Registered trademarks used in this
book (relevant pages in italics): Athermal 373,374,375, UroH9 378, Duran 213, 219,
High-Lite 266, 271, Neotherm 402, Schott BK7 254, Tessar 253, Ultran 20 297,301,
Uvilex 402, Zerodur 254. Cover Design: Meta Design Berlin Typesetting: TEX data conversion by Kurt
Mattes, Heidelberg using Springer makro package.
Printed on acid-free paper SPIN 10640624 56/3142 543210 Foreword This book, entitled The Properties of Optical Glass, is one of a series reporting
on research and development activities on products and processes conducted by
the Schott Group.
The scientifically founded development of new products and technical processes
has traditionally been of vital importance at Schott and has always been performed on a scale determined by the prospects for application of our special
glasses. The scale has increased enormously since the reconstruction of the Schott
Glaswerke in Mainz. The range of expert knowledge required for that could
never have been supplied by Schott alone. It is also a tradition in our company
to cultivate collaboration with customers, universities, and research institutes.
Publications in numerous technical journals, which since 1969 we have edited
to a regular timeplan as Forschungsberichte - 'research reports' - formed the
basis of this cooperation. They contain up-to-date information on the most various topics for the expert but are not suited as survey material for those whose
standpoint is more remote.
This is the point where we would like to place our series, to stimulate the
exchange of thoughts, so that we can consider from different points of view
the possibilities offered by those incredibly versatile materials, glass and glass
ceramics. We would like to show scientists and engineers, interested customers,
and friends and employees of our firm the knowledge that has been won through
our research and development at Schott in cooperation with the users of our
The results documented in the volumes of the Schott Series are of course oriented to the tasks and targets of a company. We believe it will become quite clear
that here readers can nevertheless - or rather for that reason - find demanding challenges for applied research, the development of process engineering, and
characterization of measurement practice. Besides realizability, the profitability
of solutions to customers' problems always plays a decisive role.
The first comprehensive presentation of research findings after the reconstruction of the factory in Mainz was edited by Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Erich Schott
in 1959. It was entitled Beitriige z'ur angewandten Glasforschung - 'contributions to applied glass research' (Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft m.b.H.,
Stuttgart 1959). Since then, there has been an extraordinary worldwide increase VI Foreword in the application of glass and glass ceramic materials. Glass fibres and components manufactured from them for use in lighting and traffic engineering or in
telecommunications, high-purity and highly homogeneous glasses for masks and
projection lenses in electronics, or glass ceramics with zero expansion in astronomy and in household appliance technology are only some examples. In many of
these fields Schott has made essential contributions.
Due to the breadth and complexity of the field in which Schott is active, many
volumes are needed to describe the company's research and development results.
Otherwise it would be impossible to do full justice to the results of fundamental
research work and technological development needed for product development.
Furthermore, it is necessary to give an appropriate description of the methods of
measurement and analysis needed for the development and manufacture of new
The next two volumes, which will be published within about a year, will
be entitled Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics and Thin Films on Glass.
Another four volumes treating fibre optics and integrated optics, surface analysis,
analysis of the composition and structure of glass and glass ceramics, and the
electrochemistry of glasses and glass melts are in preparation. Descriptions of
melting and processing technology and of glasses for various applications in
industry and science and their properties are being considered.
With the presentation - in part detailed - of the work required for the development of successful products, Schott employees are giving all their interested
colleagues who work in the field of science and technology an insight into the special experiences and successes in material science, material development, and the
application of materials at Schott. Contributions from scientists and engineers
who work in university and other research institutes and who played an essential
role in Schott developments complete the survey of what has been achieved. At
the same time such results show the need for the collaboration mentioned above.
In all the volumes of the series the fundamental issues from chemistry,
physics, and engineering are dealt with, or at least works are cited that enable or assist the reader to work his or her way into the topics treated. vVe see
this as indispensable because, with the series, Schott has a further goal in view.
We aim to provide all future business partners from branches of industry where
glasses and glass ceramics have not been applied so far with knowledge they can
use in cooperation with Schott. Furthermore, the series may serve to fill gaps
between the basic knowledge imparted by material science and the product descriptions published by Schott. Those who have already done business with our
company may find the survey of fundamentals useful in extending collaboration
to further business areas.
To make each volume sufficiently intelligible, the necessary fundamentals
from chemistry, physics, and engineering are described or referred to via citations. We see this as the best way to enable all our potential business partners
who are not already familiar with glass and glass ceramics to compare these
materials with alternatives on a thoroughly scientific basis. We hope that this Foreword VII will lead to intensive technical discussions and collaborations on new fields of
application of our materials and products, to our mutual advantage.
Every volume of the Schott Series will begin with a chapter providing a
general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects
treated. These introductory chapters and the reviews of the basic principles are
intended to be useful for all those who are dealing for the first time with the
special properties of glass and glass ceramic materials and their surface treatment
in engineering, science, and education.
Many of our German clients are accustomed to reading scientific and technical publications in English, and most of our foreign customers have a better
knowledge of English than of the German language. It was therefore mandatory
to publish the Schott Series in English.
The publication of the Schott Series has been substantially supported by
Springer-Verlag. We would like to express our special thanks to Dr. H.K.V.
Lotsch and Dr. H.J. Kolsch for advice and assistance in this project.
The investment of resources by Schott and its employees to produce the
Schott Series is, as already stated, necessary for the interdisciplinary dialogue
and collaboration that are traditional at Schott. A model we still find exemplary
today of a fruitful dialogue between fundamental research, glass research, and
glass manufacture was achieved in the collaboration of Ernst Abbe, Otto Schott,
and Carl Zeiss. It resulted in the manufacture of optical microscopes that realized
in practice the maximum theoretically achievable resolution. It was especially
such experiences that shaped the formulation of the founding statute of the Carl
Zeiss Foundation, and the initiative for the Schott Series is in accord with the
commitment expressed in the founding statute "to promote methodical scientific
Mainz, January 1995 Dieter Krause
Vice President R&D Preface to the Second Corrected Printing The second edition contains two new sections: "Environmentally Friendly Optical Glasses" , and "Optical Materials for Microlithography". Both are fields of
recent activities. Besides these additions, several corrections have been made. We
thank Mrs. Karin Langner-Bahmann for the computer processing of the figures,
Mrs. Wiltrud Witan, M.A., for revising the English, and the authors for reading,
correcting, and updating their contributions. Additionally, we are indebted to
Dr. Victoria Wicks, Springer-Verlag, for copy-editing this edition.
Summer 1998 Hans Bach
Norbert Neuroth Preface to the First Edition The main aim of the Schott Series volume The Properties of Optical Glass is to
describe the properties of the optical glasses developed by Schott. The book is
conceived as a monograph. However, the individual chapters have been written
by different - sometimes by several - authors who are themselves active in the
corresponding fields of research and development. Thus the reader is given direct
access to the experience of these authors, some of whom are employed in our
subsidiaries Schott Glass Technologies, Duryea, USA; Deutsche Spezialglas AG,
Griinenplan; and Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen.
To give the reader a view of the extraordinarily broad range of applications
of glasses and glass components, the volume opens with a general survey of the
development of optical glasses and their important fields of application, and the
aims, limits, and current state of new developments and trends in application.
The subsequent chapters treat the properties of optical glasses and other
special glasses. Schott has significantly contributed to the development and production technology of these glasses since the establishment of the company more
than 100 years ago. Information is provided, above all, on properties that are
important for the application of optical glasses as classical optical elements such
as lenses and prisms. The reader should develop a deeper understanding of optical glass as a material and at the same time find answers to particular questions
such as: Within what limits can the properties of glasses for optical service be
manufactured reprodUcibly? How does the material glass behave in processing?
Which chemical and physical influences have to be considered in the application
of optical glasses? In addition, an insight into special applications in optoelectronics is given. In these chapters, the latest results from the Schott laboratories
on the properties of optical glasses are reported.
Due to their vital importance for the construction and manufacture of optical instruments, the mechanical and thermal properties of optical glasses and
the influence of thermal treatment on the optical constants are also considered.
The influence of the tempering of glasses on their structure and the resulting
change in their properties, however, will be treated together with the analysis of
glasses in a subsequent volume. This division seems appropriate because for an
adequate characterization of the properties of a glass, for many kinds of application, both an elemental analysis and a characterization of the structure through
spectroscopy and other analytical methods are required. Preface to the First Edition XI For the production and utilization of optical surfaces the interaction between
the surfaces of optical glasses with aqueous solutions and gases in the atmosphere, especially the water vapour contained in the air, is of great importance.
Methods for the practical determination of chemical properties and the differences in the resistance of optical glasses resulting from them are therefore treated
in a separate chapter. The following chapter describes results and experiences
gathered during the production of optical surfaces. The chapter explains which
mechanical and chemical interaction parameters must be taken into account in
the manufacture of optical surfaces in order to obtain the best possible yields.
New developments and examples of the application of special optical glasses
for opthalmics, the ultraviolet and infrared spectral regions, photochromic
glasses, glasses for lasers, glasses for nuclear engineering, and coloured and protection glasses are the subjects of individual sections in the final chapter.
In all the contributions, descriptions in the text and tables and examples are
chosen so as to assist the user of the material glass, especially the constructor of
optical equipment, in his or her daily work with the material and components
made from it. The form of the presentation and the selection of citations can
also be useful for teaching and research, especially in those cases where data
for measuring and analysis techniques are required. The cited literature should
support the reader in gaining access to more detailed presentations to deepen
his or her knowledge. The contributions in this volume fill the gap between the
basic knowledge of glass and its properties provided by material science, on the
one hand, and catalogue data supplied by glass manufacturers on the other.
In view of the amount of material to be covered, the description of the production of raw glass and of semimanufactured and finished products, including
sol-gel techniques, requires its own volume in the Schott Series. For the same
reason, separate volumes must also be reserved for the coating of glass surfaces
and the production of optical fibres for light guides and image guides and for
We would like to thank all the authors of this book for their steady and
We have received further valuable help from many colleagues. For critical
reading of the manuscripts we thank Mrs. Marga Faulstich, Dr. habil. Walter
Geffcken, Dipl.-Phys. Alfred Jacobsen, Dipl.-Phys. Hans Morian, Dr. Burkhard
Speit, at Schott Glas, Mainz, Dr. Alexander J. Marker III, at Schott Glass
Technologies, Duryea, and Prof. Dr. Hans-Jiirgen Hoffmann, at the Technical
Additionally, we are indebted to several employees of Springer-Verlag, especially Barbara S. Hellbarth-Busch, Petra Treiber, and Peter Strafier, for helping
us to overcome the difficulties involved in producing manuscripts ready for printing. For their help in solving text processing problems we are indebted to Urda
Beiglbock and Frank Holzwarth, also of Springer-Verlag. XII Preface to the First Edition We are grateful to Dipl.-Math. Sieglinde Quast-Stein, Schott Glas, who with
her knowledge and experience provided substantial support in the implementation of the software guidelines supplied by Springer-Verlag.
We also thank Dipl.-Designer Andreas Jacobsen, Niedernhausen, for the creation of the numerous computer graphics needed to illustrate the texts.
We would especially like to thank Mrs. Angela Gamp-Paritschke, M.A.,
Schott Glas, for the translation from German into English, for the correction
of manuscripts submitted in English, and for her enthusiasm in performing all
the hard work necessary to prepare manuscripts ready for printing.
January 1995 Hans Bach
Norbert Neuroth Table of Contents 1 Overview - Optical Glass: An Engineered Material
Alexander J. Marker III, Norbert Neuroth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Glass: An Important Material for Optics ..................... 1
1.2 Essential Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 History of Development .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Selected Applications ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Progress in Manufacturing Technology ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.6 Today's Interests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
References .................................................... 11 2 Optical Properties
Marc K. Th. Clement, Joseph S. Hayden, Yuiko T. Hayden,
Hans-Jiirgen Hoffmann, Uwe Kolberg, Frank-Thomas Lentes,
Norbert Neuroth, Silke Wolff . ................................. "
2.1 Refractive Index and Dispersion Frank-Thomas Lentes . . . . . . ..
2.1.2 Law of Refraction ................................. "
2.1.3 Dispersion and the Various Dispersion Formulae. . . . . . . ..
2.1.4 Measurement and Limitations of the Accuracy
of Refractive Index Data ........................... "
2.1.5 Definition of the Characteristic Properties
of Optical Glasses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.2 The Chemical Composition of Optical Glasses and Its Influence
on the Optical Properties Marc K. Th. Clement. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.2.1 General Remarks .................................. "
2.2.2 Glass Types .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.2.3 Reduction of the Density ........................... "
2.2.4 Development of Optical Glasses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3 Transmission and Reflection Norbert Neuroth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.1 General Relations ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.2 Sources of Optical Loss in Glass ..................... "
2.3.3 Examples of Transmission Spectra ................... "
2.3.4 Influence of Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
2.3.5 Influence of Radiation on the Transmission .... . . . . . . . .. 19
94 XIV Table of Contents
2.4 Differential Changes of the Refractive Index
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