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_10 FALL HIS 9B POWERPOINT TEXT _3

_10 FALL HIS 9B POWERPOINT TEXT _3 -...

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Breakdown of the Tokugawa Regime Mizuno Tadakuni (1794-1851)’s Temp ō  Reforms (1834-1843). Mostly following Matsudaira Sadanobu’s program of frugality campaign and  dissolution of merchant guilds. Requiring pilgrimage to the Eastern Shining Capital in 1834, for many daimyo  just too much financial burden. Like Sadanobu’s policies, only briefly able to stop the shogunate finance from  decline.  Even less effective than Sadanobu, due to the worsening conditions in 1830s.   Serious famines hit Northeastern Japan, 1833-1834 & 1836-1837. Steady upward swing in farmer’s protests and uprisings: 74 in 1830, 183 in  1833, 266 in 1836. Social order in Northeast is threatened: private loan, gambling and smuggling  became big businesses, run by the “drifters” (today’s yakuza).    1826 ordinance yet again forbids commoners from carrying spears, guns and long  swords. Ō shio Heihachiro’s  ū ū ū revolt (1837): a former police inspector at Osaka, started  an uprising right in the middle of Osaka with appx. 300 followers. Quelled quickly, but the rebels used a cannon and gunpowder to burn down many  houses. Extremely traumatic event for the shogunnate. Foreign Pressure from Outside: Russia in the North, British in the South. British ship Phaeton’s infiltration into Nagasaki. Dutch king’s message to the shogunate. The shogunate knew that some European or American power will come with military  force to open trade with Japan.   Commodore Matthew Perry arrives at Uraga Bay, 1853– “opening” of Japan.  Senior Councillor Abe Masahiro seeks consultation with other daimyo, including outer  daimyo, on how to deal with foreign problem. Japan signs trade agreement with Townsend Harris.
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Rise of anti-shogunate Loyalism. Influence of Kokugaku, thinkers such as Hirata Atsutane, on rural wealthy  farmers. Mito Studies: interest toward Japan’s national history.   Yoshida Sh ō in: radical activist interpretation of Confucian moral philosophy. Revere the Emperor and Expel the Barbarians (sonno joi  ): slogan eventually  dropped by the Loyalists as they actually became the winners. Court noble’s support of the Loyalists: Emperor K ō mei’s secret edict. Loyalists take over the four major outer domains: Ch ō sh ū , Satsuma, Tosa and Saga. Successful mercantilist reforms, sometimes brutal toward farmers & merchants. Large proportion of the population were samurai and also the rural samurai  ( g ō shi ) who joined various youth groups and easily influenced by political activism.
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