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Unformatted text preview: Breakdown of the Tokugawa Regime Mizuno Tadakuni (1794-1851)s Temp Reforms (1834-1843). Mostly following Matsudaira Sadanobus program of frugality campaign and dissolution of merchant guilds. Requiring pilgrimage to the Eastern Shining Capital in 1834, for many daimyo just too much financial burden. Like Sadanobus policies, only briefly able to stop the shogunate finance from decline. Even less effective than Sadanobu, due to the worsening conditions in 1830s. Serious famines hit Northeastern Japan, 1833-1834 & 1836-1837. Steady upward swing in farmers protests and uprisings: 74 in 1830, 183 in 1833, 266 in 1836. Social order in Northeast is threatened: private loan, gambling and smuggling became big businesses, run by the drifters (todays yakuza). 1826 ordinance yet again forbids commoners from carrying spears, guns and long swords. shio Heihachiros &#0; &#0; &#0; revolt (1837): a former police inspector at Osaka, started an uprising right in the middle of Osaka with appx. 300 followers. Quelled quickly, but the rebels used a cannon and gunpowder to burn down many houses. Extremely traumatic event for the shogunnate. Foreign Pressure from Outside: Russia in the North, British in the South. British ship Phaetons infiltration into Nagasaki. Dutch kings message to the shogunate. The shogunate knew that some European or American power will come with military force to open trade with Japan. Commodore Matthew Perry arrives at Uraga Bay, 1853 opening of Japan. Senior Councillor Abe Masahiro seeks consultation with other daimyo, including outer daimyo, on how to deal with foreign problem. Japan signs trade agreement with Townsend Harris. Rise of anti-shogunate Loyalism. Influence of Kokugaku, thinkers such as Hirata Atsutane, on rural wealthy farmers. Mito Studies: interest toward Japans national history. Yoshida Shin: radical activist interpretation of Confucian moral philosophy. Revere the Emperor and Expel the Barbarians (sonno joi &#2;&#0; &#0; &#0; ): slogan eventually dropped by the Loyalists as they actually became the winners. Court nobles support of the Loyalists: Emperor Kmeis secret edict. Loyalists take over the four major outer domains: Chsh, Satsuma, Tosa and Saga. Successful mercantilist reforms, sometimes brutal toward farmers & merchants. Large proportion of the population were samurai and also the rural samurai ( gshi ) who joined various youth groups and easily influenced by political activism....
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course HIS 194C taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.
- Fall '10