_10 FALL HIS 194C POWERPOINT TEXT NO. 2 - 1 , 2 direction

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“Taishō Democracy” and the Metropolitan Culture 1912-1931 often called “Taishō Democracy:” 1. Continued strength of political parties, despite resistance from the military,  Privy Council and House of Peers. 2. Mass media and public opinion become an important factor in shaping societal  direction. 3. Growth of civil society and expansion of private freedom. Unfair to attack this period as “inadequate” just because eventually Japan slid into  militarism. Hara in 1919 engineered electoral system to small district-based one, lowered tax  qualifications for voting rights.   Hara wary of introducing universal (male) suffrage. The universal suffrage bill was picked up by the rival Kenseikai under the leadership of  Katō Takaaki (1860-1926).  Huge mass rallies in support of the bill, finally passed in 1925. In 1918, Reimeikai (“Dawn Society”) inaugurated under the leadership of Yoshino  Sakuzō and Ōyama Ikuo, the most famous theorists of Taishō democracy. Closer to American “liberals” of 30s and postwar years than to classical liberals of the  Popular Rights Movement. Yoshino’s attempt to justify democracy under the Meiji constitution, which denied  popular sovereignty. Using the term 8¿ c ¶ minponshugi   (“rule-for-the-people” or “rule-with-the-people- as-the-base”) for “democracy” instead of  minshushugi  (“rule-by-the-people” or “rule- with-the-people-as-masters”). Very critical of military-only appointment of Army and Navy Ministers, of Genrō’s 
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course HIS 194C taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '10 term at UC Davis.

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_10 FALL HIS 194C POWERPOINT TEXT NO. 2 - 1 , 2 direction

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