Lecture_V_Day

Lecture_V_Day - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 308 LECTURE V CHAPTER 17...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 308 LECTURE V CHAPTER 17 1 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 308 LECTURE V CHAPTER 17 I. The Carbonyl Group: -C=O Very important and widespread. Found in a number of functional groups. Strong bond because it is a multiple bond between two atoms of different EN. But the carbonyl group is reactive because of the polarity. The negative end, the O, is nucleophilic and basic and will accept an electrophile, most commonly an H + The positive end, is the C, and it is electrophilic and can accept nucleophiles A. Carbonyl Functional Groups: 1. There is a continuum of O containing functional groups by oxidation level. Consider Ethanol C 2 H 6 O; Acetaldehyde, C 2 H 4 O, Acetic Acid C 2 H 4 O 2 Lowest Oxidation Level: alcohols and ethers Second Level: aldehydes and ketones Third Level: carboxylic acids and derivatives Highest Level: CO 2 We shall start our study of the carbonyl group by looking at the lower oxidation level, the aldehydes and ketones.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 308 LECTURE V CHAPTER 17 2 2. Nomenclature a. Learn the common names shown in Section 17.1 and use them especially for small molecules. Say acetone and formaldehyde, not propanone or methanal or ethanal. Also learn the common names for aldehydes and ketones that include a benzene ring. b. Aldehydes are named systematically as alkanals by changing the suffix in the name of the parent alkane from ane to al Propanal is thus a three carbon aldehyde. There is no need to put a number in because the aldehyde always has the O at the end of the chain (in the 1-position) unless there are other functional groups that have numbering priority. CH 3 CH 2 CHO c. If the aldehyde group is attached to a ring it is named as a cycloalkanecarbaldehyde. For example cyclohexanecarbaldehyde d. Ketones are named systematically as alkanones. The “ane” ending of the alkane is changed to “one” and the location of the O is indicated by a number in the usual way. 2-pentanone
Background image of page 2
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 308 LECTURE V CHAPTER 17 3 e. If the two R groups of the ketone have simple names the ketone can be named by naming each R group followed by the word ketone . For example O dicyclopentyl ketone f. functional group priorities. When we have to name a molecule with two or more functional groups, the one that ends the name as a suffix is selected according to certain rules. The others have to be named as prefixes or as suffixes preceding the final one. In addition we need to know how to number such compounds. In order to name such compounds we need rules to decide between different names. The rule is to establish a functional group priority, where the highest priority functional group is named last and the lower priority ones are named as prefixes or nonterminal suffixes. Some examples:
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course CHEM 308 taught by Professor Boikess during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

Page1 / 24

Lecture_V_Day - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 308 LECTURE V CHAPTER 17...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online