Unformatted text preview: Chapter One: Chapter The Criminology and Controversy The of Terrorism of Why Definitions are Important Why Why Definitions are Important Why Why do people argue about the meaning of terrorism? Meaning changes It is a concept Means different things at different times Why Definitions are Important Why Pejorative Connotation of Terrorism Political and social degradation when labeled a terrorist Routine crimes assume greater importance when described as terrorism Political movement can be hampered when followers believed to be terrorists Why Definitions are Important Why Definitions of Terrorism from Various Interest Groups Law Enforcement Governments Advocating for redistribution of wealth Prolife/Prochoice Definitions of Terrorism Definitions Definitions of Terrorism Definitions Jenkins: Threat or use of force for political change Laqueur: Use of force to achieve political objective; targets innocent people Crenshaw: Cannot be defined without analysis of act, target, and possibility of success Definitions of Terrorism Definitions Herman: Defined in terms of state repression Schmid: Meaning is derived from targets and victims of terrorists Barnett: Terrorists do not have vested interest in maintaining political/economic structures because they do not benefit from them The Meaning of the War on Terrorism Terrorism The Meaning of the War on Terrorism Terrorism Arguments accepting the war with terrorism: Friedman Blank Cohen Hill The Meaning of the War on Terrorism Terrorism Argument that does not accept the war on terrorism: Howard—terrorism is an emergency situation best handled by intelligence and law enforcement services The Tactics of Terrorism The The Tactics of Terrorism The Jenkins’ six tactics of terrorism: Bombing (most common) Hijacking Arson Assault Kidnapping Hostage Taking Weapons of mass destruction? Tactics of Terrorism Tactics Four Force Multipliers: Technology Transnational support networks Media coverage Religious fanaticism How Terrorists Groups Justify Behavior Behavior How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior Behavior Justification for violence Consumed with the cause Reasons potential terrorists join groups: Sympathy for the cause Social misfits How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior Behavior Post’s Motivational Theories No single terrorist personality Social outcasts who fall in with likeminded individuals “Us against them” mentality Antisocial behavior rewarded and reinforced within this group Rejection of external authority; acceptance of internal authority How Terrorists Groups Justify Behavior Behavior Stern’s View on Group Cohesion: “Us against them” mentality against common enemy Group must have a story/mythology to inspire and guide members Group needs own language or symbolic words to demonize enemy How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior Behavior Berlet and Lyons: Groups look for conspiracies and then scapegoat a group for the conspiracy Demonize scapegoats as primary cause of injustice Leaders inspire members to action and search to demonize more enemies Warrior Dreams Warrior Warrior Dreams Warrior Warrior Culture Warriors = social outcasts whose lives center on violence; lone wolf Identity crisis of extreme conservatives following Vietnam War Culture values guns and violent confrontations Paramilitary culture/lifestyle: war games, paramilitary religion, war films/books, extremists Warrior Dreams Warrior Targets of the warrior: Enemy lacks all standards of human decency whose goal is to destroy American society and culture
Communist Dope dealer Mafioso Academic Liberal Warrior Dreams Warrior Lone warrior SWAT, commando units reflect organized military values, so warrior rejects them At war with status quo Justifies actions of militias, New Order, neo Nazis Provides formula for justifying terrorism Terrorist Profiles: Three Views Terrorist Terrorist Profiles: Three Views Terrorist Hacker one of first criminal profilers Hacker’s three types of terrorists: Criminals Crazies Join terrorist groups for payoff or vengeance Join terrorist groups for thrills of lifestyle People who believe deeply in a cause Crusaders Terrorist Profiles: Three Views Terrorist Laqueur’s Views of Terrorist Profiling: No terrorist profile possible due to different types of terrorism Terrorism fluctuates over time Some group characteristics can be determined through type of terrorist movement Impossible to profile terrorist personality because terrorism is a political activity rather than a subject of criminology Terrorist Profiles: Three Views Terrorist Ross’ alternative view: Social/psychological processes rather than profiles Joining the group Forming the activity Remaining in the campaign Leading the organization Engaging in acts of terrorism ...
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