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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Four: Chapter The Advent of Religious The Terrorism Terrorism Analysis of Religious Terrorism Terrorism Analysis of Religious Terrorism Analysis Religious fanaticism and technology Terrorists behave differently from regular criminals, religious terrorists behave differently from political terrorists Religious terrorists are not constrained by the same factors that inhibit other types of terrorists Analysis of Religious Terrorism Holy Terror vs. Secular Terror Secular terrorists operate within a dominant political and cultural framework Secular terrorists would rather make allies than indiscriminately kill their enemies Holy terrorists see the world as a battlefield between the forces of light and darkness Holy terrorists see killing as a sacramental act. Examples can be found in: The Koran Christian Old Testament Hebrew Bible Analysis of Religious Terrorism True believers Religious terrorists dismiss the religious views of others When a person becomes a true believer and a religious doctrine sanctions the use of violence, deified terrorism results, that is, the act of terrorism itself is made sacred and holy Analysis of Religious Terrorism Other dangerous trends in holy terror Religious terrorists are not utilitarian; that is, they are not a person seeking the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. Religious terrorist seek the greatest good for themselves Religious terrorists demonize their enemies; that is, they equate their enemies with the ultimate source of evil The Social Characteristics of Terrorists: Juergensmeyer’s Terror in God’s Mind God’s The Social Characteristics of Terrorists: Juergensmeyer’s Terror in God’s Mind Juergensmeyer’s Holy warriors The call to violence is a call to purify the world from the nonbeliever and the incorrect interpreters of tradition in a holy war Those who do not stand with the holy warrior are evil If the holy warrior falls, the warrior becomes a martyr for hope; if the holy warrior is successful, it is a victory for the deity The Social Characteristics of Terrorists: Juergensmeyer’s Terror in God’s Mind Juergensmeyer’s Commonalities of holy warriors from different faith traditions Al Qaeda, the Covenant, the Sword, the Arm of the Lord Manuals begin with theological passages Manuals quote U.S. Army manuals Religions That Kill: Stern’s Terror in God’s Mind Terror Religions That Kill: Stern’s Terror in God’s Mind God’s Myths A myth is a sacred story that conveys deepseated truths; it explains the basis of belief Terrorists use myths as a story to explain a religious struggle Religions That Kill: Stern’s Terror in God’s Mind God’s The return to the sacred story People around the world are returning to their religious roots as a means to escape the complexity of modern life Old truths in one society may collide with the truths of another society. When mythological truths compete, violence often results Religions That Kill: Stern’s Terror in God’s Mind God’s Changes in the structure of terrorist organizations Stories change the nature of terrorist organizations, and they help to produce a number of different group organizations and styles Some center of rigid structures Some grow when a number of insecure people gather around a strong personality Some groups are informal, and everybody has a leadership function Some loners loosely affiliate with a group but tend to act on their own Religions That Kill: Stern’s Terror in God’s Mind God’s Professional terrorists in religious organizations Leaders originally join a group because they believe in the myth, but after a time the lifestyle produces the need for “professional behavior” The power of the myth becomes less important, and the daytoday job of terrorism grows The impact of religion on the “lone wolf avenger” Lone wolf avengers have a special, narcissistic relationship with their deities. In essence, they create a god in their own image The Logic of Religious Terrorism Terrorism The Logic of Religious Terrorism The Killing and nonkilling religions Killing religions were based on the premise that a deity would help the community in a time of crisis. In the killing religions, gods slaughtered enemies The nonkilling religions embraced enemies and developed elaborate ideologies to justify violence as a last resort Nonkilling transcendence is often transformed into a militant ideology designed to protect a state or some other social group by this rationalizing of the use of violence as a last resort The Logic of Religious Terrorism The Ordinary and extraordinary worlds We use language and logical concepts to describe the ordinary or everyday world We use symbols and myths to talk about the extraordinary or spiritual world It is difficult to put extraordinary events into words, so we are forced to use everyday language The Logic of Religious Terrorism The Paul Tillich Because we put spiritual experiences in common language, we “literalize symbols” the symbol no longer represents the sacred experience because it becomes the experience The symbol becomes the object of worship, and has taken the place of the sacred The Logic of Religious Terrorism The The Promised Land In the sacred story of the Israelites, God promises the Hebrews a land flowing with milk and honey The everyday language of the story makes it look as though God promises the Israelites a geographical location The story is misinterpreted as “God promised Abraham the state of Israel” The Logic of Religious Terrorism The The Balkan Peninsula The Balkan Peninsula has been devastated, and the fundamental reason for the conflict is based on three interpretations of religion: Islam, Christian Roman Catholic, and Eastern Christian Orthodox Church The Logic of Religious Terrorism The The Turner Diaries A fictional work by white supremacist William Pierce in which the main protagonist has a religious experience The main character, Earl Turner, joins The Order. The Order gives Turner “The Book”, a “holy” book describing God’s plan to create a racially pure world in the face of Jews and people of color Turner admits to having a transcendent experience, but he cannot express his thoughts in ordinary language. He comes to realize that he can only experience the extraordinary by doing something spectacular, so he goes on a killing spree Terrorism and religion are fictionally united, and the Turner Diaries inadvertently illustrates the “logic” of religious violence. Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and Esposito’s Response Response Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and Esposito’s Response and Huntington’s historical epochs Medieval Europe from the Reformation (1517) to the Thirty Years’ War (1618\1648)— Characterized by religious wars After the Peace of Westphalia (1648), dynastic rights and territorial needs dominated international conflict Nationalistic wars after the French Revolution (1789\1799) In 1918, ideological conflict moved to the forefront Capitalism vs. Communism (until 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union) Clash of civilization—post\Cold War era Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and Esposito’s Response and Eight primary cultural paradigms or civilizations dominating the modern world Western Confucian Japanese Islamic Hindu SlavicOrthodox Latin America African Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and Esposito’s Response and Huntington’s Thesis International peace will be threatened in “torn countries”. These are regions where more than one civilization exists within an area John Esposito Disagrees with Huntington on Two Levels: Culture or civilization is defined by more than religion There is no Islamic civilization Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations and Esposito’s Response and Daniel Pipes When looking at Islam, the major clash is not between civilizations, but rather within Islamic civilization Thomas Barnett Divides the world between a functioning economic core and an excluded, nonintegrating gap that is not included in the global economy. Terrorism comes from the nonintegrating gap Believes Huntington’s clash comes between economic rather than cultural civilizations Role of Eschatology Role Role of Eschatology Role Eschatology Derived from the Greek word eschatos, a concept dealing with the end of all material and purpose in time and space In the Greek Hebrew Bible, it is interpreted as a final judgment and the realization of God’s purpose for creation Role of Eschatology Role John Domonic Crossan’s four commonly held eschatological frameworks Ascetic: Self denial Apocalyptic: God’s destruction of the existing order Ethical: Calls for followers to embrace radically moral behavior in recognition of God’s imminent reign Political: Combines expectations of religious judgment with political action Role of Eschatology Role Political Eschatology Daniel Pipes says that traditional Islam is concerned with political morality If one is expecting apocalyptic or ascetic eschatology, there is no need to worry, because God will make the final judgment. On the other hand, some forms of ethical and almost all forms of political eschatology rely on the actions of human beings Gunter Lewy argues that linking political beliefs with an endoftime theology is a prescription for violence Two Views of Islam and Terrorism and Two Views of Islam and Terrorism Two Reuvan Paz Islamic fundamentalism is related to political violence There is an Islamic terrorism Islam sees itself in a global war with the West Two Views of Islam and Terrorism Two David Kibble Islamic fundamentalism seems to be a threat at face value The pockets of Islamic extremism in the that sustain terrorism Middle East are isolated and divided Two Views of Islam and Terrorism Two Clarence Bouchat American fears and misunderstandings of Islam make it appear as if fundamentalists were united and threatening to gather the Middle East in a war against the West Daniel Pipes American political leaders have had bad political advice from academic experts who told the West not to worry about militant Islam Two Views of Islam and Terrorism Two John Esposito There are a variety of Islamic political groups, and most of them see violence as counterproductive It is not possible to rely on stereotypes or classify Islam as a violent religion ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2011 for the course CCJ 4661 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at FIU.
- Summer '08