Unformatted text preview: Chapter Eleven: Chapter Nationalistic and Ethnic Nationalistic Terrorism Terrorism The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism Terrorism The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism The Daniel Byman and the logic of ethnic terrorism Ethnic terrorism differs from terrorism carried out in the name of ideology, religion or economic gain Ethnic terrorists are usually more nationalistic than their religious counterparts The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism Ethnic terrorists and national identity Ethnic terrorist try to forge national identity Their primary purpose is to mobilize a community Terrorist activity is used to make a statement about the group’s identity Terrorism polarizes other ethnic groups and forces them to either ally with the terrorists or oppose them The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism Ethnic terrorism and violence Violence keeps the idea alive Violence sustains the conflict, even when political objectives are far out of reach Violence also serves to undermine moderates who seek peaceful solutions The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism Fear as a tool of ethnic terrorism Violent ethnic terrorists use fear to polarize various constituencies Fear polarizes cultural differences, forcing greater identification with one’s own group Fear keeps a group from developing alternative identities The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism The limited response of the government Governments can enter the game and try to promote rival identities Governments can engage in group punishment Governments can try to gain the cooperation of moderates Governments can open the doors to political participation The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism Lifeline of ethnic terrorism Ethnic terrorist organizations tend to be longlasting because they can build logical structures and they can hide in a readymade population The Logic of Ethnic Terrorism Three methods for government policy Empowering the community Winning over moderates to the political system Encouraging selfpolicing The Basque Nation and Liberty Liberty The Basque Nation and Liberty The Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA or Basque Nation and Liberty) The ETA has waged a campaign of violence since 1959 that has killed more than eight hundred people The ETA’a goal is to establish an autonomous homeland in northern Spain and southern France The Basque Nation and Liberty The The Basque separatist movement and its relation to terrorism Basque separatists believe they should be allowed to develop a homeland in Spain, and since the 1950s, Basque separatism has been an important issue in Spanish politics Current problems are a result of gradual loss of national identity that began in the nineteenth century when Madrid assumed greater control of the region, and accelerated in the early twentieth century because of industrialization The Basque Nation and Liberty The The ETA and the nationalist movement The ETA formed as an offshoot of a nationalist political party in 1959 In 1966, the ETA voted to engage in armed revolution In 1968, the group started a terrorist campaign The Basque Nation and Liberty The The ETAM A more militant group, the ETAM, broke away from the ETA in 1974 ETAM described itself as the military wing of the ETA and was responsible for the worst atrocities of the 1970s and 1980s The Basque Nation and Liberty The Characteristics of the ETA Membership matches the composition of the local population, although most terrorists are male The ETA is primarily a workingclass movement Members of the ETA were either born in a Basque family, or they were raised in Basque enclaves and feel a strong ethnic identity The overwhelming majority feel they are fighting for all the members of their community Most interestingly, members of the ETA did not view terrorism as a full time activity The Basque Nation and Liberty The Similarities between the ETA and IRA The eventual goal of Basque terrorism is regional independence The majority of Basques do not support the terrorist campaign, even though most support nationalism and some form of independence The Basque Nation and Liberty The Current State of the ETA As Spanish authorities opened opportunities for democracy and national expression, the ETA transformed itself into a social movement When the political system opened, the desire for ethnic cultural identity was not strong enough to support violence At this time, the ETA still engages in terrorist violence The PKK and Its Alter Egos The The PKK and Its Alter Egos The The Kurdish Workers’ Party (PKK) The PKK, founded in 1974, is a MarxistLeninist organization composed of Turkish Kurds Officially changing its name to Kurdistan Freedom and Democracy (KDEK) in 2002, it operates in Turkey and Europe, targeting Europeans, Turks, rival Kurds, and supporters of the Turkish government Since 1990, it has employed the language of nationalism, and since 1995, it has also used the verbiage of religion PKK could not generate enough support for the Communists, so its leadership chose the path of terrorism The PKK and Its Alter Egos The Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley Efforts to build a terrorist organization increased by moving into Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley in September 1980 Allies were quickly formed in the Syrian camp, and by 1984, a number of trainees had moved through the camps in Lebanon PKK moved its bases of support for a campaign against Turkey; Support turned out to be the key factor The PKK and Its Alter Egos The The negative effect of tactics Although the Kurds were ready to fight for independence, they were not willing to condone massacres and terrorist tactics The PKK responded in 1990 by redirecting offensive operations by limiting its attacks to security forces and economic targets The PKK also modified its MaristLeninist rhetoric and began to speak of nationalism The PKK and Its Alter Egos The The PKK shifts its position In October 1995, the PKK was willing to settle for a federation instead of complete autonomy By December, the PKK was using the rhetoric of Islam The PKK shifted its position to achieve the greatest amount of support The PKK and Its Alter Egos The The pejorative nature of terrorism represented by the PKK When a terrorist label is applied to a group like the PKK, the whole movement is questioned The PKK is a terrorist organization, but expressing Kurdish nationalism is not a terrorist act The PKK and Its Alter Egos The The PKK today Turkish authorities captured Abdullah Ocalan, the leader of the PKK, in Kenya in February 1999 Today, the PKK has thousands of supporters in Turkey and in Europe, but the United States has agreed to crack down on the organization in northern Iraq in late 2003 The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Tamil The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Eelam The LTTE The LTTE have been fighting for an independent homeland for nearly 3 million Tamils in northern and eastern Sri Lanka The basis of ethnic conflict is exacerbated by struggles between Hindus and Muslims The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Eelam The origins of LTTE At the end of WWII, the Tamil minority in Sri Lanka was concerned about maintaining its ethnic identity Claiming that the Tamils dominated the Sri Lankan government, the Sinhalese majority forced the government to adopt a “Sinhaleseonly” policy A Tamil assassin killed the Sinhalese leader in 1959, setting the stage for further violence Buoyed by religious difference and ethnic support, Tamil separatists could begin a guerrilla campaign by waging a terrorist campaign In 1975, Velupillai Pirabhakaran, a young Tamil militant, took advantage of the situation and formed the LTTE The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Eelam Tactics of the LTTE In 1988 and 1992, the LTTE sought to control geographic areas, and they moved using standard guerrilla tactics, forming uniformed units In weaker times, they relied on bank robberies, bombings, and murder In the weakest times, they have also employed suicide bombers The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Eelam Retreat of the LTTE By 1987, the LTTE retreated to the jungle, and practiced terrorism from jungle hideaways In 1990, the LTTE expanded its operations by converting a fishing fleet into a makeshift navy From 1994 to 1995, the Tamil Tigers waged another bombing and assassination campaign The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Eelam The LTTE’s unique position The LTTE is in a unique position because it has such a large guerrilla base The guerrillas are perfectly capable of fighting a protracted war against security forces, and if defeated, the LTTE can revert to terrorism The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Eelam The LTTE today In December 2001 the LTTE agreed to a ceasefire with the government of Sri Lanka According to the Tamil Eelam Web homepage, the LTTE is not a terrorist organization; it is the army of the Tamil people The Origins and Development of the Anglo-Irish Conflict Anglo-Irish The Origins and Development of the Anglo-Irish Conflict the The Vikings in Ireland Irish culture originated with Celtic invasions Viking raiders began to invade Ireland around A.D. 800 Viking rule of Ireland was challenged in 1014 The Origins and Development of The the Anglo-Irish Conflict the The Norman invasion The Normans were successful in Ireland because they used new methods of warfare By 1172, the Norman king of England had assumed the rule of Ireland The Normans built castles to control Irish cities, and Irish peasants generally dominated rural areas The Origins and Development of The the Anglo-Irish Conflict the The Protestant Reformation During the Protestant Reformation of the 1500s, King Henry the VIII of England created an independent Church of England. He also created a similar church in Ireland , but the Irish Catholics rejected this move and began to rebel against the English king Elizabeth I, Henry’s daughter, carved out the most prosperous agrarian section, the plantation of Ulster, and gave it to her subjects to colonize. English and Scottish Protestants eventually settled there. This created an ethnic division in Ireland fueled by religious differences and animosities The Origins and Development of The the Anglo-Irish Conflict the Ireland in the 1600s The Plantation of Ulster was expanded, and Irish peasants were systematically displaced Oliver Cromwell came to Ireland to quell a revolt and stop Catholic attacks on Protestants From 1689 to 1691, James II, the Catholic pretender to the British throne, used Ireland as a base from which to revolt against William of Orange, the English king The Origins and Development The of the Anglo-Irish Conflict of Thomas Wolfe Tone From 1796 to 1798, Wolfe Tone led a revolt based on Irish nationalism Wolfe Tone argued that Irish independence was more important than religious differences He created a basis for appealing to nationalism over religion The Origins and Development The of the Anglo-Irish Conflict of The Orange Orders Taking their name from William of Orange, these Protestant organizations vowed to remain unified with Great Britain The Origins and Development The of the Anglo-Irish Conflict of The Act of Union In 1801, the British Parliament passed the Act of Union, designed to incorporate Ireland into the United Kingdom Unionists, primarily the Orange Protestants in the north, supported the act, whereas Republicans, who became known as Greens, argued for a constitutional government and an independent Ireland Daniel O’Connor led the Republican movement Charles Stewart Parnell, a Protestant, created a democratic Irish party to support the cause in the late 1800s The Origins and Development The of the Anglo-Irish Conflict of The Potato Famine The 1845\1848 potato famine devastate Ireland Ireland’s census dropped by 25 percent In the years following the famine, some members of the British Parliament sought to free Ireland from British control. They introduced a series of Home Rule acts designed to give Ireland independence The Early History of the Irish Republican Army Irish The Early History of the Irish Republican Army Republican Republican military solution to the Irish conflict The solution was born in New York City in 1857 Irish immigrants in New York City created the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) as a financial relief organization for relatives in Ireland The IRB gradually evolved into a revolutionary organization The Early History of the Irish Republican Army Republican The Irish Republican Army (IRA) The IRA began with a campaign of violence sponsored by the IRB in the late 1800s The primary targets of the IRB were Unionists and British forces supporting the Unionist cause The Early History of the Irish Republican Army Republican The IRB trump over Unionists IRB leadership was dominated by men who believed each generation had to produce warriors who would fight for independence The IRB had an organization The Early History of the Irish Republican Army Republican Patrick Pearse Pearse was an inspirational romantic who could move crowds to patriotism and inspire resistance to British policies He inspired young Irish boys and girls to be militantly proud of being Irish The 1916 Easter Rebellion Rebellion The 1916 Easter Rebellion The The Rebellion At Easter in 1916, Patrick Pearse and James Connolly led a revolt in Dublin The Rebellion enjoyed local success because it surprised everyone The British also came to Dublin, and the city was engulfed in a week of heavy fighting The 1916 Easter Rebellion The Pearse’s approach to the British Pearse sent a message to the general in charge of British forces using a new title: commanding general of the Irish Republican Army Transformations continued in the political arena Independence and Separation Separation Independence and Separation Independence Sinn Fein Eamon de Valera emerged as the leader of Sinn Fein, the political party of Republicanism, and Michael Collins came to the forefront of the IRA Together, de Valera and Collins began to fight for Irish independence in 1919 Independence and Separation Independence Conflict between the IRA and the British After obtaining a list of British and loyalist Irish police and intelligence officers, Collins sent IRA terrorists to their homes and killed them. He attacked police stations and symbols of British authority. The British responded by sending a hastily recruited military force, called the Black and Tans because of their mismatched uniforms, and Ireland became the arena for a dreadful war. The conflict became popularly known as the Tan War or the Black and Tan War Independence and Separation Independence 1921 In 1921, the situation was temporarily solved by a treaty between Britain and Ireland. Under the terms of the treaty, Ireland would be granted independence while the northern section around Ulster would remain under British protection until it could peacefully be integrated into Ireland The IRA did not accept the treaty Michael Collins led the Irish Army, while de Valera took the helm of the IRA De Valera campaigned against his former colleagues and eventually orchestrated the murder of Michael Collins The British tightened their hold on Northern Ireland and bolstered its strength with a new police force, the Royal Ulster Constabulary The Unionists used this power to gain control of Northern Ireland and lock themselves into the British orbit. Ireland became a divided country Trends in the IRA: 1930\-1985 1930\-1985 Trends in the IRA: 1930\-1985 Trends Split in the IRA ranks By the 1930s, some members of the IRA wanted to follow the lead of their political party, Sinn Fein Another group of the IRA broke with the de Valera government and formed a provisional wing of the IRA during the 1930s Trends in the IRA: 1930\-1985 Trends The Officials and Provisionals Internally, the IRA split into a traditional official branch, the Officials, and a more militant provisional wing, the Provisionals Externally, the economic situation in Northern Ireland consolidated in favor of the Protestant Unionists The political and economic conditions in Northern Ireland provided the rationale for a major civil rights movement among the Catholics Trends in the IRA: 1930\-1985 Trends Catholic civil rights movement The government in Northern Ireland reacted with a heavy hand against the civil rights workers and demonstrators, and this repression was the answer to IRA prayers Issues intensified in the summer of 1969. Civil rights demonstrators planned a long, peaceful march from Londonderry to Belfast, but they were gassed and beaten by the RUC and B Specials Britain sent the British Army in as a peacekeeping force Trends in the IRA: 1930\-1985 Trends Support for the British army The Unionists greeted the army with open arms Republicans also welcomed the party because they believed the British Army would protect them from the Unionists and the police As the British Army made its presence felt in Ulster, Republicans and Catholics were subjected to the increasing oppression of army measures, and as confrontations became more deadly, Republican support for the British Army vanished Trends in the IRA: 1930\-1985 Trends The new IRA policy The IRA pushed its internal squabbles aside, and the Officials and Provisionals focused on their new common enemy, the British Army The new IRA policy emphasized the elimination of British soldiers from Irish soil and brushed aside internal political differences Alienated nationalists offered support for the growing ranks of the IRA As IRA ranks grew, Orange extremist organizations also began to swell Unionist paramilitary organizations grew in response The Peace Accord and Peace Process in Ireland Peace The Peace Accord and Peace Process in Ireland Process The AngloIrish Peace Accord In 1985, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland signed a peace accord regarding the governance of Northern Ireland The agreement seeks to bring an end to terrorism by establishing a joint system of government for the troubled area The Peace Accord and Peace Process in Ireland Process J. Bower Bell Bell is not optimistic about the ability of any political entitygovernment or otherwiseto bring peace to the island nation by avoiding every avenue of conflict. Bell says there are too many agendas and too many people served by ethnic violence Suggestions of recent research More recent research suggests that although lowlevel violence may continue, the amount of terrorism is decreasing ...
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- Summer '08
- Sinn Féin, Michael Collins, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, Easter Rising, Irish Republican Army