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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Fourteen: Chapter Terrorism in the United States Nationalistic Separatism: The Case of Puerto Rico The Nationalistic Separatism: The Case of Puerto Rico of 1898 The United States captured Puerto Rico in the SpanishAmerican war The United States granted Puerto Rico commonwealth status Three opinions of the Puerto Rican population Some desire Puerto Rican statehood Some want to create an independent country Some want to maintain a commonwealth status Nationalistic Separatism: The Case of Puerto Rico Revolutionary organizations that embraced the nationalist terrorist campaign Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN) Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) The Armed Forces of Liberation (FARP) The Guerilla Forces of Liberation (GEL) The Pedro Albizu Compos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF) The Development of RightThe Wing Violence The Development of Right-Wing Violence History of rightwing extremism The first incident of antifederal behavior came shortly after the American Revolutionary War 1791 The Whiskey Rebellion Antifederal attitudes were common in some circles in the early 1800s The KnowNothings (a.k.a., the Order of the Sons of America and the Sons of the Star Spangled Banner) were antiCatholic, antiIrish, and anti immigration The Civil War Southerners were fighting to keep the power of local government The Development of Right-Wing Violence Violence The Ku Klux Klan Founded by Nathan Bedford Forrest, the KKK was created as an antiunionist organization that would preserve southern culture and traditions Shortly after the Civil War, hooded Knight Riders terrorized African Americans to frighten them into political and social submission In the 1920s, the Klan sought political legitimacy The modern KKK grew after WWII, becoming up to the present day, fragmented, decentralized, and dominated by hatefilled rhetoric The Development of Right-Wing Violence Violence Rightwing extremism from the 1930s to the present Michael Barkun says that a new religion, Christian Identity, grew from the extremist perspective AngloIsraelism saw white Americans as the lost tribes of Israel. William Swift preached this message beginning in the late 1940s Two of Swift’s disciples, William Potter Gale and Richard Butler, went on to form rightwing associations Gale formed the Posse Comitatus Butler formed the Aryan Nation Christian Identity is based on the premise that God was white The Development of Right-Wing Violence Violence Identity theology Identity theology is based on a story of conflict and hate. According to this theology, Jews have gained control of the United States by conspiring to create the Federal Reserve System. The struggle between whites and Jews will continue until whites ultimately achieve victory with God’s help Before the Christian Identity movement Before the Christian Identity movement, American extremism was characterized by ethnocentrism and localized violence Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Beliefs, and Tactics Tactics Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Beliefs, and Tactics Behavior, Issues that hold the rightwing movement together The rightwing tends to follow one of the forms of extremist religions The movement is dominated by a belief in conspiracy and conspiracy theories Rightwing extremists continue to embrace patriotism and gun Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Beliefs, and Tactics Behavior, Limit of rightwing terrorism Groups are rural and tend to emerge from farmbased compounds Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Beliefs, and Tactics Behavior, Trends of the rightwing movement in 1984 The White supremacy movement Ku Klux Klan NeoNazis Other White European or Aryanbased organizations Survivalism Survivalists withdraw from society, forming compounds in rural areas Religion Many right wing extremists follow Christian Identity Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Beliefs, and Tactics Behavior, Rejuvenation of the extremist right The Brady Bill The Brady Bill caused many conservatives to fear federal guncontrol legislation; Extremists felt they had an issue that appealed to mainstream conservatives Ruby Ridge The Ruby Ridge incident had a strong symbolic impact on the extremist right The Waco siege Although David Koresh had nothing to do with right wing extremists per se, he had the formula: guns, a survivalist compound, and a belief in a Warrior God Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Beliefs, and Tactics Behavior, Current situation of the extremist right After September 11, 2001, violent members of the rightwing movement melted away from large organizations and began to congregate in small groups The existence of the smaller groups engaged in more individualistic violence Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms the Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms to Nordic Christianity Using ancient Norse rites, they claimed to worship the Triune Christian Deity, but they added Odin (Wotan) and Thor. Odin, the chief of the Norse gods, called Nordic warriors to racial purification from Valhalla, or the Viking heaven. Thor, the god of thunder, sounded the call with a hammer that shook the heavens Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms to Creatorism Creatorists call for a holy war or RAHOWA Creatorism is a religion with more violent tendencies than Christian Identity Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms to FreeWheeling Fundamentalists The majority of rightwing extremists retreated to more conservative churches and relied on individual interpretations of scripture from lay preachers along the American frontier to justify antigovernment actions. This group can be described as FreeWheeling Fundamentalists They believe that the federal government and local governments are their enemies and the God will assist them in their confrontation with evil Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms to Militias Militias thrive on conspiracy theories. They believe the U.S. government is leading the country into a single world government controlled by the United Nations and that the New World Order is a continuation of a conspiracy outlined in the Protocols of Zion, a document written after World War I, claiming that Jews are out to control the world Militias are almost always religious, but few embrace Christian Identity, Nordic Christianity, or Creatorism. For justification, they rely on FreeWheeling Fundamentalism and violent passages of Christian scripture quoted out of context. Simply joining a militia group does not make a person a terrorist Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms Call Paramilitary groups Paramilitary groups, or armed civilian militias that organize themselves in a military manner, operate on different levels Paramilitary groups come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and most of their action is rhetorical Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms Call Third position The Third Position tried to unite both left andrightwing extremists Both extremes found that they had some things in common: They hate the government, they have no use for large corporations, and they distrust the media Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms Call Small violent groups after September 11, 2001 These small groups embrace the ideas of Marighella and felt that any act of violence would help to create the mayhem necessary to topple the government Pierce’s Blueprint for Revolution Revolution Pierce’s Blueprint for Revolution Pierce’s William Pierce William Pierce was a White supremacist with headquarters in rural West Virginia. He led an organization called the National Alliance, purchased Resistance Records, a recording label for Skinhead hate music Pierce’s Blueprint for Revolution Pierce’s The Turner Diaries The Turner Diaries is a diatribe against minorities and Jews From a technical standpoint, it is a how to manual for lowlevel terrorism Pierce’s Blueprint for Revolution Pierce’s Dangers of The Turner Diaries It could inspire copycat crimes Some who have read this book have taken action Robert Matthews founded The Order Timothy McVeigh was arrested with a worn copy of The Turner Diaries Pierce’s Blueprint for Revolution Pierce’s Hunter Hunter tells the story of a lone wolf named Hunter who decides to launch a oneperson revolution It could and has inspired copycat crimes The Decline of the Left The The Decline of the Left The Contributions to the demise of leftwing terrorism Intellectual elites controlled the movement, yet the movement lost its base when student activism began to disappear from American academic life Leftwing groups had engaged in symbolic violence Guilt may have been a factor in the demise Leftwing movements became more specific, focusing not only on certain political behavior, but on particular causes Ecoterrorism, Animal Rights, and Genetic Engineering Engineering Ecoterrorism, Animal Rights, and Genetic Engineering Genetic Earth Liberation Front (ELF) ELF migrated from Europe to the United States The alliance has been responsible for more than six hundred criminal acts since 1996 Its tactics include sabotage, tree spiking, property damage, intimidation, and arson Ecoterrorism, Animal Rights, and Genetic Engineering Genetic The Monkey Wrench Gang, by Edward Abbey In The Monkey Wrench Gang, the heroes drive through the western states sabotaging bulldozers, burning billboards, and damaging the property of people they deem to be destroying the environment Abbey, however, is an environmental activist rather than a hatefilled ideologue Ecoterrorism, Animal Rights, and Genetic Engineering Genetic Ecoterrorism today Most violence associated with ecoterrorism has taken place in the American West From 19951999, damages total $28.8 million ELF activities have increased each year since 1999 Ecoterrorists are uncompromising, illogical extremists just like their rightwing counterparts; They use ecology as a surrogate religion Antiabortion Violence Antiabortion Antiabortion Violence Antiabortion Tactics of antiabortionists Antiabortionists began with bombing and arson attacks Today assault and gunmen along with bombing and arson are antiabortionist tactics Antiabortion Violence Antiabortion Justification for antiabortion acts Violent antiabortionist advocates justify their actions in the same manner as other political extremists Accepting the status quo is worse than using violence to change behavior. It is the standard justification for terrorism Antiabortion Violence Antiabortion Explanations for violent political behavior Social control breaks down under stress and urbanization Violence increases when people are not satisfied with political outcomes Violence can be reinforced by social and cultural values Violence can stem from a group’s strength or weakness, its lack of faith in the political system, or its frustration with economic conditions Antiabortion Violence Antiabortion David Nice and abortion clinic bombings Bombings tend to be regionalized Most of the bombings occurred in areas of rapidly expanding population and declining social controls. This means bombings tended to occur in urban areas Bombings also reflected a method a communicating frustration with political processes and outcomes States that experience bombings also exhibit a greater toleration for crimes against women Bombings are a sign of weakness Killing was a means of communication Black Hebrew Israelism: An Apocalyptic Single Issue Issue Black Hebrew Israelism: An Apocalyptic Single Issue Apocalyptic Black Hebrew Israelism Black Hebrew Israelism is a Christian Identity with an African twist Black Hebrew Israelites believe that the original Israelites were darkskinned Africans The mythology of Black Hebrew Israelites and their beliefs dates back to the Civil War. In the latter part of the twentieth century, again like Christian Identity, the group developed an elaborate theology to explain the status of African Americans The African Heritage Study Bible is used to demonstrate that the Jews who Moses led out of Egypt were black Black Hebrew Israelism: An Apocalyptic Single Issue Apocalyptic Hulon Mitchell Jr. Mitchell and Linda Gaines moved to Miami, Florida, in 1979 and laid the foundation for a Black Hebrew Israelite group known as the Nation of Yahweh By 1985, the Nation of Yahweh developed into a group of worshippers who focused their attention on Mitchell Mitchell began expanding his theology, teaching that whites were devils and his followers were to kill them in the name of God. He created an internal group called the Brotherhood, and one could obtain membership only by killing a white person Over the next few years, Mitchell dispatched Death Angels to kill whites in the Miami area Black Hebrew Israelism: An Apocalyptic Single Issue Apocalyptic The tension between believing and acting Black Hebrew Israelism is indicative of the tension between believing and acting, and it presents a dilemma for those charged with security The problem for those charged with preventing violence is that when a belief system degrades or demonizes another group, violence often follows ...
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- Summer '08