Exam 3 Review

Exam 3 Review - Stress and Strain o Stress force applied to...

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Stress and Strain o Stress – force applied to a given area o Compressional stress = shortens Brittle deformation thrust faults Ductile deformation folding o Tensional stress = elongate Brittle deformation normal faults Ductile deformation extension (not on exam) o Shear Stress = slippage, top stack is moved relative to the bottom Brittle deformation transform faults o Strain – deformation that changes in the shape or size of a rock body caused by stress o Rocks subjected to stresses greater than their own strength begin to deform by folding, flowing or fracturing o Factors Temperature, Pressure, Rock Type, Time No stress high stress Low pressure fracture deformation High pressure ductile (fold) deformation Rock type (Sandstone fractures)( Shale folds ) o Folds 0 bending of rock Anticline - Oldest = center Dome - 360 anticline Syncline - Oldest = outside Basin – 360 syncline Plunging - beginning or end of a fold Monocline – half of a fold o Faults - Fractures in rock Fault scarp – surface detection of a fault, huge increase/decrease in land that looks like a giant step Hanging Wall block and Food Wall Normal Faults – tensional stress Narrows and Lengthens Hanging wall moves down Narrows and lengthens Reverse/Thrust Faults – Compressoinal Stress Thickens and Shortens Hanging wall moves up Mountains are made of a combination of folds and faults in response to compressional stress o Compressed stress and thrust faults o They shorter areas and build higher
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(thicken) Strike-Slip Fault Side to side, horizontal movement Right lateral – opposite side moves right Left Lateral – opposite side moves left Transform Faults – San Andreas Fault Large strike-slip faults that cut through the lithosphere Earthquakes o Faults energy release earthquakes o Seismic energy travels in waves o Rays – path of waves o Types o Body Waves P Waves Primary - Fast Move through all types of matter – and through core Horizontal forward movement – movement parallel to the wave’s motion Low amplitude S Waves Secondary – Slow Don’t move through liquid – don’t move through core Perpendicular motion compared to the wave’s
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Exam 3 Review - Stress and Strain o Stress force applied to...

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