Exam 1 - E xam 1 February 21st Chapter 1 I ntroduction...

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Exam 1 February 21 st Chapter 1 Introduction Scientific Method – assumption that nature behaves in a consistent and predictable manner; the same physical laws operate everywhere o 1 – collection of facts through observation and measurement o 2 – develop a hypotheses (educated guesses) that can explain observations and be tested by observation, experiment and measurement o 3 – test the hypothesis. A single well designed observation or experiment may invalidate the hypothesis and prove it to be incorrect (modification ) o 4 – form a theory , the hypothesis is correct and there are no credible observations to the contrary o 5 – theory can be advanced to a law o Question – hypothesis – theory - law Why study o Resources formed at certain times and environments - petroleum, gems, bauxite, iron o Hazards – earthquake recurrence interval, maximum credible magnitude o Global Change – Warming, magnitude and frequency of climate change Present vs. Past o Physical geology – studies earth materials and processes o Historical geology – study throughout time Themes 3 general themes in all chapters o Deep time Earth is 4.56 billion years old Relative dating – date the relative (older than or less than some other rock) age using sedimentary rock strata and fossils “Pliocene Younger vs. older Absolute dating – date the time of crystallization of a rock using radioactive isotopes “3.32 Ma” Numerical dating o Plate tectonics Grand unifying theory of geology
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Large scale movement of earth’s outer layers (lithosphere and crust) by forces (convection) form within earth Divergent plate boundary – plates pulled apart, new plate created Convergent plate boundary – plates pushed together, plates destroyed (subduction) Transform plate boundary – plates slide horizontally past one another (California) o Life on earth - evolution Evidence from the fossil record demonstrates that life in earth’s past was very different from what we observe today. Principle of faunal succession Natural selection Darwin and Wallace Descent with modification Fossil record Complete? All we have? Biological vs. paleontological species? Fossils The Intrigue of Fossils – don’t need specifics, just that they’ve been around for a very long time o Neanderthals prized fossils 30,000 years ago o Herodotus, Greek philosopher, noted fossil seashells in rocks far from sea at high elevations. Concluded the sea had once covered those areas o Some believed this was evidence of a great (biblical) flood. Fossils buried inside of rocks. o Dragons in ancient China were large dinosaur bones found in the Gobi desert. ‘Greek Giants’ o Greeks found dinosaur bones and assumed they were remains of giants – thus many myths What is a Fossil? o
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This note was uploaded on 03/05/2011 for the course GEOL 102 taught by Professor Kysar during the Spring '06 term at George Mason.

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Exam 1 - E xam 1 February 21st Chapter 1 I ntroduction...

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