Glass%20and%20Soil%20Analysis1

Glass%20and%20Soil%20Analysis1 - Physical Properties Glass...

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Physical Properties Glass and Soil
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Physical and Chemical Properties The forensic scientist must constantly determine those properties that impart distinguishing characteristics to matter, giving it a unique identity.
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Physical and Chemical Properties Physical properties such as weight, volume, color, boiling point, and melting point describe a substance without reference to any other substance. A chemical property describes the behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another substance. i.e. combustion of gasoline.
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Measurement System Scientists throughout the world use the metric system of measurement. The metric system has basic units of measurement for length, mass, and volume; they are the meter, gram, and liter, respectively.
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Measurement System The following are common prefixes used in the metric system deci- 1/10 or 0.1 (10 -2 ) centi- 1/100 or 0.01 (10 -3 ) milli- 1/1000 or 0.001 (10 -4 ) micro- 1/100,000 or 0.000001 (10 -7 ) nano- 1/1,000,000,000 or 0.000000001 (10 -10 ) kilo- 1000 mega- 1,000,000
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Volume equivalencies in the metric system
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Conversions 1 inch 2.54 centimeters (cm) 1 meter 39.37 inches (in.) 1 pound 453.4 grams (g) 1 liter 1.06 quarts (qt.) 1kilogram 2.2 pounds (lb.)
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Conversions 12 in. = X cm (12 in.)(2.54 cm/in.) = 30.48 cm 227g = X lb. (227g)(1 lb./453.6 g) = 0.5 lb.
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Physical Properties - Temperature Temperature is a measure of heat intensity, or the hotness or coldness of a substance. In science, the most commonly used temperature scale is the Celsius scale. This scale is derived by assigning the freezing point of water a value of 0°C and its boiling point a value of 100°C.
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Physical Properties Temperature Melting points, boiling points Two scales Celsius and Fahrenheit
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Physical Properties – Weight and Mass Weight is the force with which gravity attracts a body. W = mg Mass refers to the amount of matter an object contains independent of gravity. The mass of an object is determined by comparison to the known mass of standard objects.
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Density A physical intensive property of matter that is equivalent to the mass per unit volume of a substance. D=M/V It is considered a characteristic property of a substance and can be used as an aid in identification. Intensive property is a property that is not dependent on the size of an object.
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Density In general ρ (solids) > ρ (liquids) > > ρ (gases) Temperature dependent ρ (H 2 O, 4ºC) = 1.0 g/ml ρ (H 2 O, 20ºC) = 0.998 g/ml ρ (H 2 O, 0ºC) = 0.92 g/ml (ice)
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Density Substance State of Matter Density (g/ml) Lead Solid 11.5 Aluminum Solid 2.7 Glass Solid 2.47-2.54 Ice 0° Solid 0.92 Gasoline Liquid 0.69 Water 4° Liquid 1.00 Air Gas 0.0013
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Light waves travel in air at a constant velocity until they penetrate another medium, such as glass or water, at which point they are suddenly slowed, causing the rays to bend. Refraction
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course CHS 3501 taught by Professor Perr during the Spring '09 term at FIU.

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Glass%20and%20Soil%20Analysis1 - Physical Properties Glass...

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