Organic%20and%20Inorganic%20Analysis1

Organic%20and%20Inorganic%20Analysis1 - Inorganic and...

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Unformatted text preview: Inorganic and Organic Analysis Building Blocks An element is the simplest substance known and provides the building block from which all matter is composed Matter is anything that has a mass and occupies space All of the elements are listed by name and symbol in the periodic table Table also shows trends Two or more elements combine to form a compound An atom is the smallest part of an element that still retains the characteristics of that element A molecule is the smallest unit of a compound that still retains those characteristics Atomic Model An atom is mostly empty space with the nucleus containing nearly all of the mass of an atom. An exploded view of an atom would resemble a marble (the nucleus) inside an football stadium (the electron cloud). Protons are heavy and have positive charge Neutrons are heavy and have no charge Electrons are light and have negative charge Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus. Electrons are outside orbiting the nucleus of an atom and forms orbits In a neutral atom the Number of protons = Number of electrons The number of protons is the same for all atoms of the same element Atomic number = number of protons in the nucleus 2 He 4.003 28 Ni 58.69 64 Gd 157.25 Periodic Table Explained Atomic number = number of protons in a nucleus Elements are numbered so in the table Elements are grouped by properties in columns (up and down) called groups Period is a row (left and right) 118 elements and 94 exist naturally Isotopes Different types of atoms Same number of protons, different number of neutrons (same atomic number, different mass number) Named with the same name and then a number denoting the protons + neutrons in the isotope Carbon-14 = 6 protons, 8 neutrons All Hydrogen atoms with different numbers of neutrons If isotopes are not stable they will undergo radioactive decay Isotopes and Radioactivity Radioactivity The spontaneous emission of radiation from certain unstable elements Unstable nuclei decay into stable nuclei and radioactive elements (subatomic particles or electromagnetic radiation or combination) particle ( 4 He) (electron) rays Positron emission (loses an electron with a positive charge) Electron capture (nucleus captures one electron so a proton changes into a neutron) Half life Time that it takes for of the number of atoms to form new atoms Unique to each radioactive element independent of temperature Number of nuclei remaining = n n = number of half lives Useful dating materials 4000 nuceli starting with Radioisotope Dating 238 U (uranium) 238 He ( ) + 238Th (Thorium) half-life = 4.5 billion years; after 14 decays in series ends with 206 Pb Can use for dating i.e. Rock with 0.5 g 238 U and 0.5 g 238 Th is ~ 4.5 billion yrs old....
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Organic%20and%20Inorganic%20Analysis1 - Inorganic and...

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