Unformatted text preview: Communication
An overview of the process and parts. Communication The process of exchanging information and ideas. Communication Process: Speech and Language
Decod e Transmit Encode An active process of encoding, transmitting and decoding messages. High probability of message distortion due to the high number of ways a message can be formed and the perceptions of the listener. Language
Receptive Expressive Receptive Expressive – The process of receiving language input and decoding it into meaning. – The process of encoding language and transmitting it to a receiver. This will be submitted for attendance In Class Activity Receptive and Expressive Language
– Work in your groups and list specific examples of when students use expressive and receptive language How difficult would it be for a student to function if he or she had deficits in receptive and/or expressive language and could not do the examples listed? Paralinguistic Communication metalinguistic nonlinguistic Paralinguistic Mechanisms intonation stress rate of delivery pauses/hesitation Can change the form or meaning of a sentence. Paralinguistic mechanisms signal attitudes or emotions. Intonation Changes in pitch Examples: You were here today. You were here today? Stress ! Used for emphasis Examples: I did wash my hands. I did wash my hands. Rate of Delivery Varies with the emotions and perceptions of the speaker. Includes: – State of excitement – Familiarity of content – Perceived comprehension of the listener Pauses or Hesitations Can either emphasis or replace a part of the message. Example: Can Susie stay the night? The Process of Communication (Shames, Wiig, & Secord, 1994, p. 41) The Communication Process
Paralinguistic Language Communication nonlinguistic metalinguistic Language A socially shared code for concepts through the use of symbols and rule bound combinations of those symbols. Native speakers learn the linguistic rules of their language and are than able to understand and create an infinite number of combinations to communicate. Language Disorders Can occur with another disability or can occur without another disability. Components of Language
Form: Syntax Morphology Phonology Content: Semantics Use: Pragmatics Form: Syntax Syntax: The rules that govern the form or structure of a sentence Specifies which word orders and combinations are grammatically correct. Syntax includes: Word order Sentence organization Relationships between words Word classes Syntax Example Every sentence must include a noun phrase and a verb phrase. “The cat ran quickly.” Noun phrase Verb phrase Only certain word classes can appear in certain phrases. Articles are placed before nouns and adverbs modify verbs. Syntactical Disorders Affects word order – Using immature word order at a given age Form: Morphology A morpheme is the smallest unit of grammar. Each morpheme has meaning. Free morphemes Examples – Can be used independently Bound morphemes Examples – Must be attached to a free morpheme – ‘s, er, ly, un – Dog, big, happy Morphological Disorders Mental retardation Autism Hearing loss Expressive language delay Specific language impairment Form: Phonology Phonemes are the smallest meaningful units of speech sound. Phonemes are combined to form words and are governed by rules for combination and sequence.
– Examples for English: – Examples: /a/, /m/, /s/, /ch/, /ou/ /h/ will not appear at the end of a word Bring is an English word, and Bling could be nd will not appear and the beginning of a word, but can appear in another part of a word such as in “and” or “window” Phonologic Disorders Difficulty hearing the difference between sounds. – Phonologic awareness is an important preskill for reading and spelling. Content: Semantics The relationship of language form to: In simpler terms, semantics relates to word meanings. Examples:
– Semantically, the word “bachelor” includes “unwed” and “male.” – “Bachelor’s wife” is meaningless – “unwed bachelor” is redundant – objects, events, and relationships. – words and word combinations. More on Semantics: The more semantic features words share, the more they are alike.
– Synonyms are words that contain identical features – Antonyms are words that contain opposite features Big and large Small and little Happy and sad Long and short Semantic Disorders Difficulty (may vary between children)
– – – – – – Using words Multiplemeaning words Time and space words Cause and effect Inclusion vs. exclusion May rely on nonspecific words Impacts expressive and receptive communication Use: Pragmatics Social rules for language Focus of pragmatics is on the communicative context of language The two aspects of “Use:” Language Functions – Interaction – Regulation – Control
Language is used to interact with others, to regulate their behavior, and to fill the speaker’s need by controlling others. Linguistic Selection – Determined by: speakers intent perceptions of listener shared cognitive and linguistic information the situation Pragmatic Rules Organization – – Turntaking Opening, maintaining, and closing a conversation – Establishing and maintaining a topic – Making relevant contributions to the conversation Repair Role – Giving and receiving feedback – Establishing and maintaining role – Code switching for each role – Coding intentions relative to the communicative context Speech acts Pragmatic Disorders Autism Asperger’s Traumatic Brain Injury The Communication Process
Paralinguistic Language Communication nonlinguistic Speech metalinguistic Speech The verbal aspect of communication. The result of specific motor behaviors including: – Speech sound combinations (phonemes) – Voice quality – Intonation – Rate Anatomy of Speech (Shames, Wiig, & Secord, 1994, p. 86) Speech Disorders Articulation Apraxia – Speech sounds – Motor planning Voice disorders Fluency disorders
– Rate and rhythm – Pitch, duration, intensity, resonance, vocal quality References Shames, G. H., Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (1994). Human Communication Disorders: An Introduction (4th ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Turnbull, R., Turnbull, A., & Wehmeyer, M. L. (2007). Exceptional Lives: Special Education in Today’s Schools (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall. ...
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- Spring '08
- Specific Language Impairment, expressive language, Shames, Wiig