Unformatted text preview: Learning Disabilities Learning Specific Learning Disability Specific Defined Disorder in one or more of the basic Disorder psychological processes involved in understanding or using written or spoken language language May manifest itself in an imperfect ability to May listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do math calculations math Includes: perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia Does not include learning problems that are the result of: VI, HI, motor disabilities, MR, ED, environment, culture, or economic disadvantage. disadvantage. The Discrepancy Model The There must be a discrepancy There between a student’s ability (measured through an IQ test) and achievement (measured through a standardized achievement test). standardized http://www.tushar-mehta.com/excel/charts/normal_distribution/ Since both the IQ and achievement Since tests are based on the bell curve, the scores can be compared. scores Bias against students from diverse Bias racial/ethnic backgrounds (they score lower on IQ tests). score When students have a lower IQ, it is When harder to show a discrepancy. harder IQ cannot be reliably assessed until IQ age 9. age You have to wait until the student’s You achievement is delayed enough to show a severe discrepancy. show Early identification and intervention Early is not possible. You must let the students fail before they can receive services. services. The Response to Intervention Model. Model. Students are provided with “generally Students effective” instruction by their teachers. effective” Progress is monitored. Students who do not respond, get Students something else or more. something More explicit-systematic teaching of critical skills More intensive-increased time in instruction More supportive-better sequence of skills and More learning strategies learning Progress is monitored. Those who still do not respond will either Those qualify for Sp. Ed. or Sp. Ed. evaluation. qualify Students can receive more explicit, Students intensive, and supportive instruction in Kindergarten (no waiting for them to fail). to Only students who have a genuine Only LD are labeled. LD Students receive services without a Students label. label. Students who have lower IQs, and Students would not qualify for Sp. Ed., still receive interventions. receive IQ test does not have to be IQ administered. Has not yet been scientifically Has validated. validated. Group Discussion: Is This Child Mislabeled? Is
http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu 1. Do you think Serge’s skills were assessed Do adequately? Do you think he was correctly diagnosed? Why or why not? diagnosed? Do you think a special education placement was Do appropriate for Serge? Why or why not? What kind of progress do you think he would have made in the general education setting without individualized instruction? individualized Mrs. Evans learned about the cultural Mrs. background of her students. How do you think this knowledge impacted her teaching? this 1. 1. Small Group Activity Small Split into small groups (1-3 people) Write your name/s on the graphic Write organizer (will be turned in for attendance record). Using the textbook (pages 106110), write in a phrase and/or 110), drawing for each characteristic. The phrase and/or drawing should help you remember the meaning of each characteristic. each Decoding Activity: Decoding Recognizing Phonemes Recognizing
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/reading.html Reading requires the ability to Reading map the phonemes we hear to letters on a page, and vice versa. But what happens when this basic skill, called decoding, decoding doesn't come automatically? Imagine struggling to sound out every word because you can't distinguish among phonemes. distinguish When you see Pronounce as a, as in bat e, as in pet q z p b ys d or t m b p er e, as in pet a, as in bat We pegin our qrib eq a faziliar blace, a poqy like We yours enq zine. yours Iq conqains a hunqraq qrillion calls qheq work Iq qogaqhys py qasign. qogaqhys Enq wiqhin each one of qhese zany calls, each one qheq hes QNA, one Qhe QNA coqe is axecqly qhe saze, a zessbroquceq rasuze. When you see Pronounce as a, as in bat e, as in pet q z p b ys d or t m b p er e, as in pet a, as in bat So qhe coqe in each call is iqanqical, a razarkaple puq veliq claiz. Qhis zeans qheq qhe calls are nearly alike, puq noq axecqly qhe saze. puq Qake, for insqence, qhe calls of qhe Qake, inqasqines; qheq qhey're viqal is cysqainly blain. blain. Now qhink apouq qhe way you woulq qhink if Now qhose calls wyse qhe calls in your prain. qhose Writing Simulation Writing http://www.pbs. org/wgbh/misunderstoodminds/writ .html Group Discussion Questions Group How well did you perform the How activities? Were there some you were good at? Were Which ones? How did your performance on these How activities make you feel? Do you believe these activities are Do similar to the experiences of a real student with learning disabilities? Why or why not? Do you believe you have a better Do understanding of the experiences of a student with learning disabilities? Why or why not? What are three strategies you may What use to teach students with learning disabilities in your classes? disabilities ...
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- Spring '08
- Educational Psychology, Mental retardation, Learning disability, Serge