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Unformatted text preview: SES100 Lecture 2 What is Exploration What is Science What is Engineering Engineering Impacts Why Explore Mars? Ethics Scientific Method Hongyu YU
• What is exploration? • Act of searching or traveling for the purpose of discovery • Fundamental objective? • Knowledge for benefit of humanity • Types of exploration? • Geographical • Resources • Information • Produces economic benefits • Knowledge is a productive asset • “Knowledge economy”
9 Exploration (con’t)
• In scientific research: • Exploration, description, explanation • Questions: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Should societies explore? What arguments are used to promote exploration? What are benefits to society? Do all parts of society benefit equally? What explorations are going on today? In 100 years? 10 Science
• What is science? a) Science is system of acquiring knowledge based on observation, experimentation, explanation b) Science is collection of knowledge gained from scientific research • “Science is a way of thinking much more than a body of knowledge” Carl Sagan 11 Engineering
• What is engineering? • Most definitions include: 1) Application of scientific and mathematical principles to create useful products 2) Creative solution of problems 3) Optimization of competing factors 4) Decision making 5) Profession 12 An Engineering Definition
The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.*
Deﬁnition of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology Does this differ from mathematics or chemistry or physics or geology? How?
13 Big Picture
The definition is rather broad: some specifics? Write down what you believe are major contributions / impacts that engineering and science have had (will have?) on society: • Early History • Recent • Anticipated (Future) 14 Engineering Impacts • Were the impacts all positive? • Were your choices Western-centric? 15 Some examples*
• • • • • • • • • Egypt and Mesopotamia (pyramids) Engineering the Temples of Greece The Roman Roads and Aqueducts The Great Wall of China Quality of wrought iron is improved Swords are mass produced Siege towers are perfected Greeks develop manufacturing Concrete is used for arched bridges, roads and aqueducts in Rome
*Source: CRESMET Early History
16 Some examples
• • • • • • Gunpowder is perfected Cotton and silk manufactured Silk and glass industries develop First toilet is invented in England Galileo constructs a refractive telescope Otto von Guerick first demonstrates the existence of a vacuum • Isaac Newton constructs first reflecting telescopes 1 – 1700 CE
17 Some examples
• • • • • • • • • • • Industrial Revolution begins in Europe James Watt patents his first steam engine First building made completely of cast iron built in England Machine automation is first introduced in France Railroad locomotive is designed and manufactured Single wire telegraph line is developed Reinforced concrete is first used First synthetic plastic material is created Bessemer develops process for stronger steel in mass quantities First oil well drilled in Pennsylvania Typewriter is perfected Modern Past 1700 – 1875 CE 18 Some examples
• • • • • • • • • • Telephone is patented in US by Alexander Graham Bell Thomas Edison invents the light bulb and the phonograph Gasoline engine developed by Gottlieb Daimler Automobile introduced by Karl Benz Wright brothers complete first sustained flight Ford develops first diesel engines in tractors First commercial flight between Paris and London John Logie Baird invents a primitive form of television First atomic bomb is used The transistor is invented Modern Past 1875 – 1950 CE
19 Some examples
• Computers first introduced into the market, are common by 1960 • Sputnik I (first artificial satellite) put into space by USSR • First communication satellite — Telstar —is put into First space • The first moon landing • The First supersonic flight of the Concorde • Columbia space shuttle is reused for space travel • First artificial heart is successfully implanted • Robots travel on Mars • The “Chunnel” between England and France is finished The • GPS is used to predict and report weather conditions, as well as, many other consumer applications Current 20 Top 20 of 20th century
Electrification Automobile Airplane Water Supply and Distribution Electronics Radio and Television Agricultural Mechanization Computers Telephone Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Highways Spacecraft Internet Imaging Household Appliances Health Technologies Petroleum and Petrochemical Technologies Laser and Fiber Optics Nuclear Technologies High-performance Materials For information on how these were selected, go to http://www.greatachievements.org/?id=4247
21 Essential Concepts
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) What is exploration? What is science? What is engineering? Engineering impacts Why explore? 22 ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course SES 100 taught by Professor Saripalli during the Spring '09 term at ASU.
- Spring '09