CHAPTER 7 - 02:56 C HAPTER 7: Physical/Cognitive...

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02:56 CHAPTER 7: Physical/Cognitive Development in Early Childhood (2-6yrs) Know about physical development Slow changes in height and weight o Each year child adds 2-3 inches in height and 6pnds in weight Steady progress in major motor development and fine motor skills Fine motor skills improve but less so than gross motor skills Excessive gains child makes in large-muscle skills o 5-6: Running, jumping, skipping, climbing Early training (2.5 yrs) can accelerate rate that child acquires school-related fine- motor skills, ex: writing o 18-24mo: runs awkwardly, uses 2feet on stairs, pushes/pulls boxes or wheeled toys, stacks 4-6 blocks, turns pages 1pg at a time, unscrews lid on jar o 2-3: runs easily, climbs on furniture alone, picks up small objects, throws small ball while standing o 3-4: walks stairs 1ft per step, walks on tiptoe, ride tricycle, catches large ball, cuts with scissors, holds pencil o 4-5: walks stairs 1ft per step, runs, strikes ball with bat, kicks & catches ball, threads beads on string, grasps pencil properly o 5-6: skips on alternate feet, walks on line, slides, swings, plays ball games well, threads needle and sews large stitches Lateralization of Brain Function Left Right Language Intuition Logic Creativity Analysis Art/music
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Math Spatial Perception Know about handedness Handedness : a strong preference for using one hand or the other that develops between 3-5 yrs of age o Appears very early in life – before 1 st birthday o 83% right-handed o 14% left-handed o 3% ambidextrous o Research suggests a genetic link: dominant gene for right-handedness Older children are better at fine motor tasks with non-dominant hand than younger children are Know about child wellness Health and Wellness Often eat less than when babies because growing more slowly Food aversions surface o Child who loved carrots as infant refuse to eat them when 2-3 Eating Patterns develop that likely will cause problems later o Ex: 15% overweight Eating behaviors bring on family conflicts Children’s appetite should be guide for how much they eat May not consume the majority of daily calories at mealtime
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Illnesses and Accidents Each year, 4-6 bouts of brief sickness Higher family stress = more sick children o Children living with single parent more likely to have asthma and other sicknesses than those living with both parents Accidents #1 cause of death in preschool children 25% of US children under 5 have yearly accidents More common among boys (tend to be more adventurous)
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CHAPTER 7 - 02:56 C HAPTER 7: Physical/Cognitive...

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