Exam 1 Study Guide-2

Exam 1 Study Guide-2 - Exam1StudyGuide Chapter 1: Nature of...

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Exam 1 Study Guide 06/03/2011 21:10:00 Chapter 1: Nature of Development Behavioral Reorganization : a change in the way a developing child organizes and uses his/her capabilities Children take skills they already know and use it in another way Ex: child walks then begins to run Quantitative vs. qualitative changes: Quantitative : when change can be measured by standard of measurement o i.e. child who begins to walk can eventually walk across a room Qualitative : novel ability emerges that cannot be measured with a previous standard of measurement o i.e. baby babbling then forming actual words Continuous vs. discontinuous development, and normative vs. individual development Continuous : changes are small and gradual, difficult to notice change Discontinuous : changes are made in steps, through stages o Easy to notice change Normative : typical or average development of all children o I.e. children sit up at 6 months, crawl at 9 Individual : variations around the normative course of development o i.e. some crawl at 11 months instead of 9 (individual trajectory)
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How have theories of child development changed over the centuries? What are the main theories we will be studying in child development – who are the key players and what are the key concepts? How do theorists differ on issues of gradual development vs. stages, early vs. current experiences, and specific vs. general theory? John Locke : children are blank slates, empty buckets o Therefore role of environment to fill up Jean Jacquis : children will develop in a normative way as long as the environment permits it Charles Darwin : everyone is pre-wired to growing up; through natural selection humans have acquired common traits that have helped adapt and increase our chances of survival Nature vs. Nurture : o Nature: genetic influences can unfold within an environment o Nurture: environment influence needs a base of genetic potentials to work 6 Theories of Development: 1. Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental Theory Normative cognitive development from birth – 12 yrs. Children are active learners, not passive Little scientists constantly exploring their worlds Discontinuous growth in spurts 2 . Information-processing : our brain functions like a computer Seek to explain human thought process
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Interested in age-related changes in children’s memory, problem solving skills, and knowledge-base (improvement in attention, memory and thinking) Quantitative change, gradual improvement 3. Socio-cultural Theory (Vygotsky) Children learn cognitive skills in social settings and only later internalize them The way a child thinks is influenced by his environment Social/cultural processes Zone of Proximal Development : difference between what a child can do on his/her own and what they can do with the help of a more competent peer
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This note was uploaded on 03/06/2011 for the course FMSC 332 taught by Professor Evans during the Spring '08 term at Maryland.

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Exam 1 Study Guide-2 - Exam1StudyGuide Chapter 1: Nature of...

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