CHAPTER 3 Gender

CHAPTER 3 Gender - 03:20 C HAPTER 3 Gender, Atti tudes and...

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03:20 CHAPTER 3 Gender, Attitudes and Behavior Stereotypes : Widely held beliefs about members of a social group Gender and ethnicity interact: Within an ethnic group, males and females have some stereotyped traits in common, but also some that differ Within a gender, some stereotyped traits are common across ethnic groups, but others differ o Stereotypes may be distinct for certain groups. Sometimes overlap and interact across things like social class, religion etc. Impact of stereotypes: Prime discriminatory or biased behavior o Ex: young group of blacks might be followed around store and whites wouldn’t o People don’t want to get in bus with woman bus driver Reinforce differences in status and power o stereotypes that express different roles o ex: male CEO more likely to be chosen than woman; o women tend to not negotiate as much; men ask for much more Negative feelings about own group o Sexism (devalued) Stereotype threat o stereotype salience makes a difference on performance Stereotype threat : a source of stress arising from the risk of personally confirming a negative stereotype about one’s group Person begins to expend energy to cope with stress (avoid proving)
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Negative stereotypes lead to self-doubt because one may confirm the stereotype, damaging performance Results: Math and driving performance of diverse women: o No difference when thought test was gender-fair; poorer performance when thought it showed gender differences o Asian-American women did better on math problems when ethnic identity primed; far worse when gender identity primed o Latino men hurt under stereotype threat but Latinas worse; stereotype threat helps performance of White men When gender is made salient, women perform worse than when it is not; When gender is not made salient, perform better The woman who REALLY care about subject (math) will experience the most stress about the stereotype of group- will perform worse Being the object of two negative stereotypes may hurt performance twice as much (Latinas) Gender differences Even when there are average gender differences in a particular trait, (boys are more aggressive than girls), almost always there still are large individual differences-differences from one male to the next & one female to the next. (ex: an aggressive little girl) – distributions overlap Meta-analysis : statistical technique where researcher combines results of many research studies o 1.Locate all previous studies on question o 2.Compute effect size of difference, d =(Mm-Mf)/s Small ( d =.20), moderate ( d =.50), and large ( d =.80) o 3.Average all the values of d over all the studies Theoretical explanations for gender differences (e.g., why do we find these differences?) Gender socialization Gender role development Research methods
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Androgyny : combination of masculine and feminine psychological characteristics in an individual Based on 2-dimensional model of masculinity and femininity (2 separate
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CHAPTER 3 Gender - 03:20 C HAPTER 3 Gender, Atti tudes and...

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