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Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 Study Guide 06/03/2011 21:15:00 ← Abilities, Achievement and Motivation ← General patterns of sex and race based differences in wages • Men make more than women; Women and minorities make less than white men • Factors contributing to gender gap in wages: o 1. Job Segregation: most jobs held predominantly by one sex or another and the higher percentage of women in a job the lower the pay, when gender ratio flips, wages drop. Comparable worth: principle that people should be paid equally for work that is comparable in responsibility, educational requirements, and so forth. o 2. Women’s family roles: responsibility to family leads women to have to choose or settle for the lower and less well paid levels of their occupations ex: to be a successful partner in a law firm or to earn tenure as a college professor requires considerably more than 40 hours of work/week – therefore women may choose not to commit to the extra hours ← • GIRLS do BETTER in school, yet men achieve higher-status positions in the world of work. • There is a discrepancy between the abilities and school achievement of females in the adulthood. o Two general classes of factors help to explain this discrepancy: External barriers to achievement (job discrimination, Internal barriers to achievement (low expectations for success, and the low value of placements in some areas such as math skilled also seem to exist.) o * Internal barriers may be cause by external barriers; women may have low expectations for success in her job because she has experienced job discrimination. ← ← General patterns of sex and race based occupational segregation • Most occupations highly segregated by gender (+90%) o Men dominate as airline pilots, auto mechanics, carpenters and welders o Women dominate as childcare workers, dental assistants and registered nurses. • 1. The stereotyping of occupations severely limits people’s thinking about work options. o Ex: A man may feel suited to be a nurse, or a women a great carpenter but they might feel discourage from following their dreams because certain occupations may not be gender appropriate for them • 2. Occupational segregation is a major contributor to the gender gap in wages o women earn 73 cents for every $1 earned by men o 30-45% of wage gap due to occupational segregation o Occupations that are predominantly female are almost invariably low paying. • Occupation is also segregated by race/ethnicity: in a experiment jobs that were shown to children as being done only by whites were rated as higher in status than jobs shown being done by blacks (lower-status occupations) o Black children clearly have learned that Blacks generally hold lower-status occupations, and they generalized this principle even to fictions occupations....
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This document was uploaded on 03/06/2011.
- Spring '11