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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10: Corrections Development of Corrections Corrections: the variety of programs, services, facilities and organizations responsible for the management of people who have been accused or convicted of criminal offenses Invention of the Penitentiary Enlightenment: a movement during the 18th century in England and France in which concepts of liberalism, rationalism, equality, and individualism dominated social and political thinking Showed new views on law and the criminal justice system Before enlightenment Europeans used physical punishment but with the spread of the movement modern penal systems begin to emerge that emphasize fitting the punishment to the offender John Howard An influential sheriff who wrote The State of Prisons in England and Wales which described the horrible conditions he saw in prisons Parliament passed the penitentiary act in response to the book Penitentiary Act: called for the creation of a house of hard labor where offenders would be imprisoned for up to two years, ran on 4 basic principles: A secure and sanitary building Inspection to insure that offenders followed the rules Abolition of the fees charged offenders for their food A reformatory regime Penitentiary: an institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society and from one and other so they can reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and reform Reform in the United States Ideas changed from thinking that deviance was part of human nature to a belief that crime resulted from environmental forcesfocused on reforming the criminal The Pennsylvania System The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons included Quakers and was inspired by Howards ideas Argued that criminals could be best reformed if placed in penitentiaries The Walnut Street Jail (PA) first penitentiary (was in Philly) led to Separate Confinement: a penitentiary system developed in PA in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates in all activities Prisoners would not be treated vengefully but should be convinced that through suffering they could change their lives Solitary confinement would prevent further corruption inside prison In isolation, offenders would reflect on their transgressions and repent Solitary confinement would be punishment because humans are by nature, social animals Solitary confinement would be economical because prisoners would not need a...
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- Spring '07