Chapter 11: Community Corrections-Probation and Intermediate Sanctions Community Corrections: Assumption • Four factors that support community corrections • Many offender’s criminal records and current defenses are not serious enough to warrant incarceration • Community supervision is cheaper than incarceration • Rates of recidivism or returning to crime for those under community supervision are no higher for those who go to prison • Ex-inmates require both support and supervision as they try to remake their lives in the community Probation: Correction without Incarceration - developed by John Augustus – persuaded judge to give him custody of convictd offender for brief period and helped man appear rehabilitated • Probation is the conditional release of the offender into the community under the supervision of correctional officials • Can be combined with other sanctions such as fines, restitution, and community service • The court that sentences the person to probation has authority over the probationer and if he/she violates the conditions or commits another crime, the judge can order the entire sentence to be served in prison • The number of people on probation is at a record high • Public see it as a “slap on the wrist” Origins and Evolution of Probation • Started out as giving people a second chance • Psychology led to a change of emphasis on therapeutic counseling, which brought about three changes • The officer no longer acted primarily as a community supervisor charged with enforcing a particular morality • Officer became more of a clinical social worker • Offender expected to become actively involved in treatment • Primary goal is the pursuit of rehabilitation this changed again in the 70s to risk management (the goal is to minimize the probability that an offender will commit a new offense) Organization of Probation • Falls under the executive branch but in about 25% of the states, probation falls to the county and local governments • The state sets the standards but the local government administers the programs • States combine probation and parole services to maximize their resources
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- Fall '07
- intermediate sanctions, Probation Services, community Probation