Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Chapter 12: Juvenile Justice Youth Crime in...

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Chapter 12: Juvenile Justice Youth Crime in the United States • About 1.5 million arrests of juveniles take place each year 96,000 of these are for violent crimes • Youth crimes range from UCR index crimes to “youthful crimes” such as curfew violations, loitering, and being a runaway • Most juvenile crimes are committed by young males • Criminologists attribute the rise in youth crime to drug sales especially crack cocaine and increase in the carrying of guns • Youth gang presence in almost every American city The Development of Juvenile Justice • Philosophy of juvenile justice began in the US during social reform period in the late 19th century • Based on the idea that the state should act as would a parent in the interest of the child • 1960s shift to juvenile rights • 1980s focus on the problem of controlling youth crime • Idea originated in England • Parens patriae: the state as parent: the state as guardian and protector of all citizens (such as juveniles) who cannot protect themselves • The chancery courts exercised protective jurisdiction over all children, particularly those involved in questions of dependency, neglect, and property • Laid the groundwork for juvenile justice system The Puritan Period (1646-1824) • English procedures were maintained in the colonies and continued into the 19th century • Massachusetts Stubborn Child Law in 1646- first attempt by a colony to deal with child problems • Imposed the view that the child was evil and the need of the family to discipline and raise youths • Dealt with those who would not obey there parents Refuge Period (1824-1899) • Problem of youth crime and neglect became a concern for the reformers • Focused efforts primarily on the urban immigrant poor • Believed that parents who did not discipline there children or train them to abide by society’s rules would end up in prison • Created institutions where they could learn good work and study habits, develop character and live in a healthy environment • First was House of Refuge in NY 1825 • Placed in these homes by court order bc neglect • Some states created reform schools • First was the Lynman School for Boys in MA • Despite these changes the criminal justice process for children was the same as adults
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The Juvenile Court Period (1899-1960) • Reformers were referred to as the “child savers” • Wanted to use the power of the state to “save” the children from a life of crime • Wanted a separate juvenile court system • Juvenile Court Act by Illinois in 1899 • Established the first comprehensive system of juvenile justice • Has four major elements • A separate court for delinquent, dependent and neglected children • Special legal procedures that were less adversarial than those in the adult system
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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12: Juvenile Justice Youth Crime in...

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