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Chapter 9 - Part V Phase Diagrams Phase Transformations in...

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1 Part V: Phase Diagrams & Phase Transformations in Metal Alloys Chapters 9,10,11.

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2 Taipei 101 Example: Building Structures
3 Single-Crystal Titanium panels F/A22 Raptor Example: Aerospace Industry

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4 Example: Aerospace Industry Pratt and Whitney F119 Engine
5 What you should understand by the end of this chapter: The importance of binary phase diagrams. The difference between a component and a phase . How to interpret a binary phase diagram: Identification of phases Composition/concentration of each phase Amount of each phase How to use phase diagrams to predict microstructure . The basis of the Fe-C phase diagram.

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6 Solid Solubility We define solubility as the maximum equilibrium concentration of a solute in a host material. Answer: 65 wt% sugar. ALS: What is the solubility of sugar in water at 20 o C?
7 ALS: If you have 1 L (1000 g) of water, how much sugar can you dissolve in it? a) 650 g of sugar b) 2000 g of sugar c) 1350 g of sugar Solid Solubility We define solubility as the maximum equilibrium concentration of a solute in a host material. Previous Answer: 65 wt% sugar.

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8 ALS: If you have 1 L (1000 g) of water, how much sugar can you dissolve in it? Solid Solubility We define solubility as the maximum equilibrium concentration of a solute in a host material. Previous Answer: 65 wt% sugar. Answer: The solution is 65% (about 2/3) sugar and 1/3 water. The weight of the sugar is twice that of the water, so 2000 g is the answer.
9 If you leave a saturated water/sugar solution open to the air and the water starts to evaporate, what will happen? ALS: Solubility Limits Answer: At some point there won’t be enough water to hold all of the sugar. The solubility for sugar will be exceeded , and some of it will come out of the solution in crystal form (i.e. precipitate ) to compensate.

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10 Alloys An alloy contains 2 or more components . Alloys are defined by a composition which expresses how much of each element is present: mild steel (Fe, 0.4% C, 0.75% Mn) 304 stainless steel (Fe, 0.08% C, 19% Cr, 9.25% Ni, 2% Mn) 6061 aluminum alloy (Al, 1.2% Mg, 0.6% Si, 0.3% Cu, 0.2% Cr) lead solder (60% Sn, 40% Pb) Alloys can have more than one phase . If all of the alloying elements are soluble in the host material in all concentrations you get a single phase alloy . This is also called a solid solution .
11 Phases A phase is a homogeneous part of a system which exhibits uniform physical and chemical characteristics. Phases exist over a range of compositions, temperatures (and pressures). Example: water-sugar Two phases: essentially pure solid sugar water-sugar liquid solution

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12 Characteristics of Phase Phase depends on physical state. Phase depends on crystal structure. Phase diagram for water Phase diagram for iron
13 ALS: Phases For each of the following situations how many phases are present?

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Chapter 9 - Part V Phase Diagrams Phase Transformations in...

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