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Unformatted text preview: PH I L 111 Final Exam Study Guide I. What is Logic? Logic is the study of arguments criteria for distinguishing good arguments from bad arguments how to justify beliefs criterion for distinguishing good inferences from bad inferences Logic is NOT the study of the psychological processes of reasoning how to persuade people of your opinion how to think creatively I I. What is an argument? An argument is a set of propositions in which some of the propositions (called the premises) are asserted as support or evidence for another proposition (called the conclusion). An argument must have one and only one conclusion An argument can have any finite number of premises. An argument must have at least two propositionsa premise and a conclusion The premises can be either t rue or false. The conclusion can be either t rue or false. I I I. Evaluating Arguments A good argument is one in which the premises are all true; the conclusion follows from the premises; and the argument does not commit any fallacies An argument proves its conclusion when its premises are all t rue; and the conclusion follows validly from the premises An argument is strong when its premises are all t rue; and the t ruth of the premises make the conclusion likely to be t rue. The following are NOT criteria for distinguishing good arguments from bad arguments: How many people believe the conclusion How many people are convinced by the argument How many people find the argument persuasive IV. The fallacies Know the definitions and be able to identify each of the following 17 fallacies: 1. Subjectivism 2. Appeal to majority 3. Appeal to emotion 4. Appeal to force 5. Appeal to authority 6. Ad hominem 7. False Alternative (sometimes called False Dilemma) 8. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc 9. Hasty Generalization 10. Composition 11. Division 12. Begging the question 13. Equivocation 14. Appeal to Ignorance 15. Diversion 16. Denying the Antecedent 17. Affirming the Consequent V. Validity and Soundness Validity Validity is a way in which a conclusion can follow from a set of premises. An argument is valid if and only if it is impossible for the premises to all be t rue and the conclusion false. A valid argument can have: All true premises and a t rue conclusion All or some false premises and a t rue conclusion All or some false premises and a false conclusion A valid argument cannot have: All true premises and a false conclusion Notice that valid arguments are t ruthpreserving in the following sense: A valid argument will never go from all t rue premises to a false conclusion....
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor Forte during the Fall '08 term at Bridgewater State University.
 Fall '08
 FORTE

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