Categorical Propositions

# Categorical Propositions - Topics for Today (11/23) I....

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3/4/11 Topics for Today (11/23) I. Categorical Logic II. Categorical Propositions I. Standard-Form Categorical Propositions a. Subject and Predicate Terms b. Quantity c. Quality II. Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard-Form Categorical Propositions a. Predicates b. Quantifiers III. The Forms of Categorical Propositions IV. Using Venn Diagrams to Represent

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3/4/11 I. Categorical Logic Categorical Logic deals mainly with arguments based on the relations of classes to one another. A class : A collection of objects that have some specified characteristic in common. Class Name Members in the Class Cars All the cars that have or ever will exist. Cars currently in existence All the cars currently in existence. Three-legged dogs in Jamestown on Halloween, 2010 All the three-legged dogs in Jamestown on Halloween in 2010.
3/4/11 II. Categorical Propositions Categorical Proposition : A proposition that either affirms or denies that the members of one class are included in another class, either in whole or in part. Examples of categorical propositions Every square is a rectangle. No person is an immortal being. Some monkeys are jugglers.

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3/4/11 III. Standard-Form Categorical Propositions There are exactly four kinds of standard-form categorical propositions. Here are examples of each of the four kinds: 1. All politicians are liars. 2. No politician is a liar. 3. Some politicians are liars.
3/4/11 III. a. Subject and Predicate Terms Every Standard-Form Categorical Proposition mentions two classes: The Subject Term : The class whose members are said to belong or not to belong to the other class. The subject term is the class mentioned first. The Predicate Term : The class that the members of the subject term are said to belong or not belong to. The predicate term is the class mentioned second. Standard-Form Categorical Proposition Subject Term Predicate Term All whales are mammals. Whales Mammals No car is a bike. Car Bike Some politicians are corrupt people. Politicians Corrupt People Some fat cats are not my pets. Fat Cats My Pets

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3/4/11 III. b. Quantity Every standard-form categorical proposition has a quantity . If a categorical proposition refers to all members of the class designated by its subject term, its quantity is universal . If a categorical proposition refers to some members of the class designated by its subject term, its quantity is particular .
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## This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course PHIL 100 taught by Professor Forte during the Spring '08 term at Bridgewater State University.

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Categorical Propositions - Topics for Today (11/23) I....

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