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The Opium Wars(I)I.The opium tradeII.The “Napier Fizzle” of 1834III.Charles Elliot and the opium issueIV.Commissioner Lin in CantonA.British reactionV.The Treaty of NankingKey Terms“Country Trade”Jarine, Matheson and CompanyTaipanLord William John NapierLord PalmerstonCharles ElliotLin ZexuImperial ComissionerWei YuanHong KongChusan(Zhoushan)DinghaiTianjinQishanChuenpi(Chuanbi)Chuenpi ConventionSir Henry PottingerSanyuanliQiyingTreaty of NankingExtraterritoriality-With the exception of opium traders, Americans in china were subject to
American laws, judges, courts and prisonsTreaty of WanghsiaTreaty of Whampoa“Century of shame”SinocentrismI.The Opium Trade•Chinese had almost every advantage in trade•1826 trade was balanced, after 1826, began to be in B’s favour•Ppl addicted to opium, produced sleepy dreamy feeling•Death penalty in C for growing opium•Laced with tobacco and smoke•Allowed in C for medical purposes•1620s on island of Taiwan, first illegal use. Dutch introducted it. Opiumand tobacco mixed together, smoked produces a high•Opium abuse spread from Taiwan to mainland•1729 opium abuse large enough that emperor prohibits its abuse•1796 opium illegal•B realize if they make enough opium demand, then they could make akilling•Opium grown in British India•Opium rolled into bowling balls. Bengall, sold to China•B merchants drop off stuff in Bengall, then does private trade
•1820s“country trade”and “country ships” they go to the pearl river andunder cover of night rowed small armed rowboats, then sell the things,row back to mainland and then product controlled by Chinese•Volume increases exponentially, 1729- 200 chests/year sold. 1767- 1000chests/year, 1820- 4500/year, 1837- 40 000/year•By 1830 opium dens as common in china as gin houses in England•B find out, lower the price, more market, increase profit by sheer volume•Opium spread from Canton to anyone in the city•Ching govnt had to take action because spreading from city to rural areas•Dope trade draws in all foreign traders•Jardine, Matheson and companyhandles 1/3 of all opium sold toChina•B control large amount of opium market in China, America gets in on it•American traders hook up with Turkish opium producers, then sendopium to China•Roosevelt family got rich off opium trade•B interested in opium, since ppl are more wealthy, they can charge moretaxes B turns blind eye to opium problem, decide only fault of users•China is bleeding silver by end of 1820s, bad enough, but China has asilver(big) and copper(small) currency, because of copper in relation tosilver, taxes become huge•Southern China ppl throw down the plough and turn to banditry becausethey can’t pay the taxes