4.Late Tokugawa and the Meiji restoration Notes - L ate...

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Late Tokugawa and the MeijirestorationChina’s emperor is in power until they do something bad, then the “heavens” will tell the people to overthrow himDynasty-Passing of political line from father to son or brother to brotherJapan’s emperor is untouchable, no overthrowing You must not touch that emperor, if he doesn’t do a good job, you never overthrow his dynasty, he is of divine descent, the line goes all the way back to the creation of timeWhat if he cannot rule? Set him aside, turn him into a figurehead, pamper him in a palace but do not take over his lineI.Tokugawa Japan, 1600-1868Shogunwields real military and political power, Edo/TokyoEmperor lives in Kyoto, acts as figurehead Shogun would never think of taking over as emperorTwo govts, govt of emperor (ceremonial). Shogon’s govt is bakufu/shogunate (tent govt) imagery of a general out on campaign, living in a tent. The shogun cannot call his residence a palace, even if it isYou must act according to your partKyoto is more beautiful, traditional architecture
Edo/Tokyo is real political power. Hanmeans province. Many dozen in Tokugawa, governor called daimyohead of province, collects taxes, keeps some for himself, some to edoProvinces have their own money systems, own currency, not easy traveling between provinces Edo doesn’t like interprovincial connections because if they gang up together, they could over throw the central power All roads lead to Edo! Daimyo own soldiers samuraior retainers. Have to be born into a hereditary class 5%-7% of the population of Japan Samurai are the armed people, can carry Katana, swordsmanship is a deadly art1700-1800 there is peace, samurai keep themselves in military discipline and drill but also become govt bearucrats in the provinces, they are literate and educated. ”they wield both the brush and the sword” To be a samurai is to be loyal In Edo they are also called samurai Sword is there for good form, not actually a complete sword How does the center govt keep the diamyo and samural loyal? Tokugawa is concerned, feudal govt and the provinces will have their power, must pay taxes and also supply a certain number of men under arms if and when armed combat should be requiredYou keep them under control: Sankin Kotai/alternate attendanceEach Diamyo keeps two palace, one in his province, other in Edo close to shogun’s palace. In Edo you are expected as Diamyo to
spend alternate years, you and military men, living in Edo with you and your samuraiAn expensive endeavour, deliberateby central govt, keep them spending money and keep them busy so they don’t rebel Edo govt is the most powerful central govt that pre modern Japan had ever known Balancing act about right. Too much power to provinces, they would overthrow, take too much power, provinces would be angry Japan is fairly wealthy during Tokugawa. In terms of capital income, richer than China, larger literacy rate, but Japan is small, less military might and population

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