4.Late Tokugawa and the Meiji restoration Notes

4.Late Tokugawa and the Meiji restoration Notes - Late...

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Unformatted text preview: Late Tokugawa and the Meiji restoration • China’s emperor is in power until they do something bad, then the “heavens” will tell the people to overthrow him • Dynasty-Passing of political line from father to son or brother to brother • Japan’s emperor is untouchable, no overthrowing • You must not touch that emperor, if he doesn’t do a good job, you never overthrow his dynasty, he is of divine descent, the line goes all the way back to the creation of time • What if he cannot rule? Set him aside, turn him into a figurehead, pamper him in a palace but do not take over his line I. Tokugawa Japan, 1600-1868 • Shogun wields real military and political power, Edo/Tokyo • Emperor lives in Kyoto , acts as figurehead • Shogun would never think of taking over as emperor • Two govts, govt of emperor (ceremonial). Shogon’s govt is bakufu/shogunate (tent govt) imagery of a general out on campaign, living in a tent. The shogun cannot call his residence a palace, even if it is • You must act according to your part • Kyoto is more beautiful, traditional architecture • Edo/Tokyo is real political power. Han means province. Many dozen in Tokugawa, governor called daimyo head of province, collects taxes, keeps some for himself, some to edo • Provinces have their own money systems, own currency, not easy traveling between provinces • Edo doesn’t like interprovincial connections because if they gang up together, they could over throw the central power • All roads lead to Edo! • Daimyo own soldiers samurai or retainers. Have to be born into a hereditary class 5%-7% of the population of Japan • Samurai are the armed people, can carry Katana, swordsmanship is a deadly art • 1700-1800 there is peace, samurai keep themselves in military discipline and drill but also become govt bearucrats in the provinces, they are literate and educated. ”they wield both the brush and the sword” • To be a samurai is to be loyal • In Edo they are also called samurai • Sword is there for good form, not actually a complete sword • How does the center govt keep the diamyo and samural loyal? • Tokugawa is concerned, feudal govt and the provinces will have their power, must pay taxes and also supply a certain number of men under arms if and when armed combat should be required • You keep them under control: Sankin Kotai/alternate attendance • Each Diamyo keeps two palace, one in his province, other in Edo close to shogun’s palace. I n Edo you are expected as Diamyo to spend alternate years, you and military men, living in Edo with you and your samurai • An expensive endeavour, deliberate by central govt, keep them spending money and keep them busy so they don’t rebel • Edo govt is the most powerful central govt that pre modern Japan had ever known • Balancing act about right. Too much power to provinces, they would overthrow, take too much power, provinces would be angry • Japan is fairly wealthy during Tokugawa. In terms of capital income, richer Japan is fairly wealthy during Tokugawa....
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4.Late Tokugawa and the Meiji restoration Notes - Late...

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