343881468 - 28 Plants without Seeds: From Water to Land...

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28 Plants without Seeds: From Water to Land General Biology 112
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28 Plants without Seeds: From Water to Land 28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise? 28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land? 28.3 What Features Distinguish the Vascular Plants? 29.4 What Are the Major Clades of Seedless Plants?
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28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise? Land plants are monophyletic, all descend from a single common ancestor. One synapomorphy : Development from an embryo protected by tissues of the parent plant. Also called embryophytes .
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28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise? Land plants retain derived features they share with green algae: Chlorophyll a and b Starch as a storage product Cellulose in cell walls
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Figure 28.1 What Is a Plant?
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28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise? “Plants” can be defined in several ways: Streptophytes include land plants and closely related green algae Green plants —streptophytes plus all other green algae. All have chlorophyll b
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28.1 How Did the Land Plants Arise? Charales is thought to be the sister group of land plants Plasmodesmata Branching, apical growth Similar peroxisome contents, mechanics of mitosis and cytokinesis, and chloroplast structure
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Figure 28.2 The Closest Relatives of Land Plants
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28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land? Plants first appeared on land 400 and 500 million years ago. Large plants needed a way to transport water to all parts of the plant. Need structural support and methods to disperse gametes.
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28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land? Characteristics of land plants: The cuticle —waxy covering that retards water loss Stomata —openings in stems and leaves; regulate gas exchange (except liverworts) Gametangia enclosing gametes
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28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land? Embryos in a protective structure Pigments that protect against UV radiation Spore walls containing sporopollenin protects from dessication and decay Mutualistic relationships with fungi that promote nutrient uptake from soil Soil Formation
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28.2 How Did Plants Colonize and Thrive on Land? Nonvascular land plants (liverworts,
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course BIO 112 taught by Professor Anaba during the Spring '10 term at Clark Atlanta.

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343881468 - 28 Plants without Seeds: From Water to Land...

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