Intergative thinking - John M. Oesch Rotman School,...

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John M. Oesch Rotman School, University of Toronto 1
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Intro to Mental Models Intro to Integrative Thinking
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"The ability to face constructively the tension of opposing models and instead of choosing one at the expense of the other, to generate a creative resolution of the tension in the form of a new model that contains elements of the individual models but is superior to each." ~ Rotman School of Management (2005) So: What is Integrative Thinking?
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Understand your own mental models Safeguard against systematic perceptual and decision making biases Collect relevant feedback to model yourself, and to model others Generalize models to include people and environmental factors Resolve model differences by identifying new and better models identify assumptions and think about what would happen if the assumption were not valid
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A mental model is a cognitive representation of the world that provides us with meaning Mental models are most often explanations of phenomena, causal links between events, or metaphorical representations of how we perceive reality
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Reality is unknowable (shadows on the wall of the cave) Objective reality can be interpreted through a series of cues These cues act as a lens that we use to create images of reality Our perceptions help to form mental models of reality
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Visible: artefacts of general models (behaviours, statements , the claims we make, etc.) Underwater: fundamental assumptions, beliefs, and values that drive the more visible cognitions and behaviours
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What is this person thinking? What is this person feeling?
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Experience (data to test our hypotheses) Our working theories become rules or laws in our minds The comfort we get from using these models to make sense of the world leads us to believe these models reflect reality and hence to defend these models
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The brain is very powerful, but not perfect Typical thinking patterns, problems Predictable errors Reinforcement mechanisms Defense of identity and self-esteem
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Causal reasoning We are determined to find the one root cause of all problems. We also confuse correlation with causality.
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Famous conductors in the US live about 7 years longer than average A B A B C A B A B C
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In the US airline industry, large airlines lose money because. .. The number of CAW assembly jobs is decreasing because…
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The Fundamental Attribution Error and the Self-serving Bias boys and girls and math tests B = f { I , S }
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Boys who perform well, and girls who perform poorly…. Internal attributions Girls who perform well and boys who perform poorly… External attributions
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The tendency to make self-serving attributions; namely, internal attributions for one’s own success and external attributions for one’s own failure
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Three types of mental models: mindsets schema scripts
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A collection of assumptions, attitudes, and methods used to approach decisions Eg. customer focused vs. artistic design
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course RSM 100 taught by Professor Oesch during the Spring '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Intergative thinking - John M. Oesch Rotman School,...

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