chapter23 - Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big Bang Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? What were conditions like in the early universe? Universe must have been much hotter and denser early in time The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa E = mc 2 Early universe was full of particles and radiation because of its high temperature What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? Planck Era Before Planck time (~10-43 sec) No theory of quantum gravity Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Thought Question Which of the four forces keeps you from sinking to the center of the Earth? A. Gravity B. Electromagnetism C. Strong Force D. Weak Force Thought Question Which of the four forces keeps you from sinking to the center of the Earth? A. Gravity B. Electromagnetism C. Strong Force D. Weak Force Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Do forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Do forces unify at high temperatures? Yes! (Electroweak) Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Do forces unify at high temperatures? Yes! (Electroweak) Maybe (GUT) Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Do forces unify at high temperatures? Yes! (Electroweak) Maybe (GUT) Who knows? (String Theory) GUT Era Lasts from Planck time (~10-43 sec) to end of GUT force (~10-38 sec) Electroweak Era Lasts from end of GUT force (~10-38 sec) to end of electroweak force (~10-10 sec) Particle Era Amounts of matter and antimatter nearly equal (Roughly 1 extra proton for every 10 9 proton- antiproton pairs!) Era of Nucleo- synthesis Begins when matter annihilates remaining antimatter at ~ 0.001 sec Nuclei begin to fuse Era of Nuclei Helium nuclei form at age ~ 3 minutes Universe has become too cool to blast helium apart Era of Atoms Atoms form at age ~ 380,000 years Background radiation released Era of Galaxies Galaxies form at age ~ 1 billion years Primary Evidence 1) We have detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang....
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course RSM 100 taught by Professor Oesch during the Spring '08 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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chapter23 - Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big...

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