six sigma overview - Engineering Drawings - Show...

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Engineering Drawings - Show Dimensions, Tolerances, etc.
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Control Charts for and R Control Limits, Specification Limits Control limits are functions of the natural variability of the process (usually set at 3-sigma from the mean) Specification limits are determined by developers/ designers. x
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Control Charts for and R Control Limits and Specification Limits There is no mathematical relationship between control limits and specification limits. Do not plot specification limits on the charts Causes confusion between control and capability If individual observations are plotted, then specification limits may be plotted on the chart. x
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Time distributions in the proposal writing process Unacceptable, process needs adjustment back to centre of range. Max Nominal Limit Limit Unacceptable, needs to reduce the variability. Max Nominal Limit Unacceptable, needs to re centre the process and reduce variability Max Nominal Limit Acceptable now, but the slightest change will make it unacceptable. Should reduce the variability Limit Max Acceptable, even if things change slightly . Max Nominal Nominal
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Process Capability Lower Specification Upper Specification Process variability matches specifications Lower Specification Upper Specification Process variability well within specifications Lower Specification Upper Specification Process variability exceeds specifications
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Factors influencing process capability 1. Condition of machine/ equipment. 2. Type of operation and operational conditions. 3. Raw materials. 4. Skill of operators. 5. Measurement method / instruments. 6. Inspector’s skill.
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Process Capability Ratio Cp >1 implies a process has the potential of having more than 99.73% of outcomes within specifications Process capability ratio, Cp = specification width process width Upper specification – lower specification Cp = where normal distribution is assumed (number of samples is large):
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Process Capability C pk population process the of deviation standard mean process x where 3 Limit ion Specificat Lower x or , 3 x Limit ion Specificat Upper of minimum = = - - = p p p pk C σ Assumes that the process is : under control normally distributed
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Meanings of C pk Measures C pk = negative number C pk = zero C pk = between 0 and 1 C pk = 1 C pk > 1
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The Evolution of Quality 1920: Time & Motion studies – F. Taylor 1930: statistical Sampling : W A Shewhart 1940: Statistical Sampling Techniques : W E Deming 1950: reconstruction of Japan – SPC   1960: Japanese Quality movement –  Taguchi, Ishikawa 1980: TQM : Quality Circles Six Sigma : Motorola              1987 1996 1970: Zero Defects : Crosby                               BPR – M Hammer           1990 Six Sigma Deming, Feigenbaum,  Juran Each phase built on the structure and gains from the previous phases Each phase built on the structure and gains from the previous phases
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WHAT  IS  SIX  SIGMA ?
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This note was uploaded on 03/03/2011 for the course MARKETING 101 taught by Professor Singh during the Spring '11 term at Management Development Institute.

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six sigma overview - Engineering Drawings - Show...

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