BIO311C_spr11_Chapter_16

BIO311C_spr11_Chapter_16 - DNA structure and replication...

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DNA structure and replication Chapter 16 (pages 305-316) Relevant parts
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What we will cover Experiments done to show DNA was the genetic material Review DNA structure Different types of replication Experiments to show semiconservative replication Mechanism of replication Enzymes in replication
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Evidence That DNA Can Transform Bacteria Frederick Griffith was studying Streptococcus pneumoniae A bacterium that causes pneumonia in mammals He worked with two strains of the bacterium A pathogenic strain (Smooth) and a nonpathogenic strain (Rough) 1928
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Griffith experiment Fig. 6.3 b Genetics: from genes to genomes (Hartwell)
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Avery, MacLeod, McCarty Experiment Fig. 6.4 a Genetics: from genes to genomes (Hartwell) fyi
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Transformation: The ability of foreign DNA to change the genetic characteristics of an organism
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Bacteriophages – phages or viruses that infect bacteria
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Bacteriophages transfer their genetic material into bacterial cells and reprogram the cells to make more phages. Which component of bacteriophage (DNA or Protein) is responsible for reprogramming the bacterial cell?
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Fig. 16-4-3 EXPERIMENT Phage DNA Bacterial cell Radioactive protein Radioactive DNA Batch 1: radioactive sulfur ( 35 S) Batch 2: radioactive phosphorus ( 32 P) Empty protein shell Phage DNA Centrifuge Centrifuge Pellet Pellet (bacterial cells and contents) Radioactivity (phage protein) in liquid Radioactivity (phage DNA) in pellet http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olc/dl/120076/bio21.swf
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Building a structural model of DNA
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Erwin Chargaff fyi
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Chargaff’s rule The amount of Adenine equals the amount of Thymine The amount of Guanine equals the amount of Cytosine
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The Watson-Crick Model: DNA is a double helix 1951 – James Watson learns about x-ray diffraction pattern projected by DNA Knowledge of the chemical structure of nucleotides Erwin Chargaff’s experiments demonstrate that ratio of A and T are 1:1, and G and C are 1:1 1953 – James Watson and Francis crick propose their double helix model of DNA structure
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Hydrogen bond 3 end 5 end 3.4 nm 0.34 nm 3 end 5 end (b) Partial chemical structure
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BIO311C_spr11_Chapter_16 - DNA structure and replication...

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