Chapter 4_Spr11 - Organic compounds Chapter 4 (pages 58 66)...

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Unformatted text preview: Organic compounds Chapter 4 (pages 58 66) Page 59 fig 4.2 covered later (a) Methane (b) Ethane (c) Ethene (ethylene) Molecular Formula Structural Formula Ball-and-Stick Model Space-Filling Model H H H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C CH 4 C 2 H 6 C 2 H 4 Name and Comments Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation Fig. 4-5a (a) Length Ethane Propane Fig 4.5 Fig. 4-5b (b) Branching Butane 2-Methylpropane (commonly called isobutane) Fig. 4-5c (c) Double bonds 1-Butene 2-Butene Fig. 4-5d (d) Rings Cyclohexane Benzene (a) A fat molecule (b) Mammalian adipose cells 100 m Fat droplets (stained red) Figure 4.6 A, B Fat molecule comprises of hydrocarbons Types of Isomers Structural Geometric Enantiomers Fig. 4-7a (a) Structural isomers 2-methyl butane Pentane Structural isomers: have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Fig. 4-7b (b) Geometric isomers cis isomer: The two Xs are on the same side. trans isomer: The two Xs are on opposite sides. Geometric isomers : same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements Fig. 4-7c (c) Enantiomers L isomer D isomer Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other Functional groups CH 3 OH HO O CH 3 CH 3 OH Estradiol Testosterone Female lion Male lion Figure 4.9 The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life: Hydroxyl group Carbonyl group Carboxyl group Amino group Sulfhydryl group Phosphate group Methyl group FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Fig. 4-10aFig....
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Chapter 4_Spr11 - Organic compounds Chapter 4 (pages 58 66)...

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