Chapter 5_part 1_Spr11 - Cells have a structural hierarchy...

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Unformatted text preview: Cells have a structural hierarchy Chapter 5 Four macromolecules in cells: Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic acids Lipids Synthesis of Polymers Condensation (Dehydration) reactions HO H 1 2 3 HO HO H 1 2 3 4 H H 2 O Short polymer Unlinked monomer Longer polymer Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond Figure 5.2A Breakdown of polymers Hydrolysis HO 1 2 3 H HO H 1 2 3 4 H 2 O H HO Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond Figure 5.2B Covalent bonds connecting monomers Carbohydrates Glycosidic bond Proteins Peptide bond Nucleic acids Phosphodiester bond CARBOHYDRATES MONOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDES Fig. 5-3a A l d o s e s Glyceraldehyde Ribose Glucose Galactose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) MONOSACCHARIDES Fig. 5-3b K e t o s e s Dihydroxyacetone Ribulose Fructose Hexoses (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Pentoses (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) Trioses (C 3 H 6 O 3 ) Monosaccharides Variations based on: A) No. of Carbons in the carbon skeleton B) Location of Carbonyl group C) Spatial arrangement of atoms eg. varying configurations of OH groups Heptoses 7 carbon Hexoses 6 carbon Pentoses 5 carbon Tetroses 4 carbon Trioses 3 carbon A) No. of carbons in the C skeleton A) No. of carbons in the C skeleton B) Location of carbonyl group...
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This note was uploaded on 03/04/2011 for the course BIO 311C taught by Professor Satasivian during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Chapter 5_part 1_Spr11 - Cells have a structural hierarchy...

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