3 - a) Seaborne trade cargoS Xw * S Categories of seaborne...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Seaborne trade cargoS a) S Categories of seaborne trade cargoS In 1999 merchant ships transported about 5.1 trillion tons of cargo. The trade consisted of many different commodities. Originally, there were two major categories of cargo :general cargo and bulk cargo. Advanced transportation concepts and vehicle designs have, however, fostered the use of further categories, commonly the seaborne principal commodities includen 1n Liquid bulk cargoes The main ones are crude oil, oil products, liquid chemicals such as caustic soda, vegetable oils, and wine n liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The size of individual consignments varies from a few thousand tons to half a million tons in the case of crude oil. Liquid bulk cargoes which can be stored in tanks, handled by pumping and transported in tankers. Within this class there are many subdivisions. Of the liquid bulks, crude oil and oil products are the largest, while some of the others, particularly chemicals, are obscure and highly complex cargoes. Crude oil has few special requirements and can be shipped in very large quantities. Many chemical liquids are toxic and must be stored in special tanks, while others such as ‘black products’ must be heated if they are to remain sufficiently viscous to be handled. Liquefied gasses require vessels with refrigeration or pressurized tanks. 2n The ‘five major dry bulks’ It covers the five homogeneous bulk cargoes - iron ore, grain, coal, phosphates and bauxite. From a cargo handling viewpoint, the five major bulks are all homogeneous commodities shipped in large quantities by sea, and transport tends to focus on economies of scale using standard general-purpose bulk carriers. 3n
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 4

3 - a) Seaborne trade cargoS Xw * S Categories of seaborne...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online