12 Procaryotae F10

12 Procaryotae F10 - Microbiology 101 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY...

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Procaryotae cell structure & function GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY October 18, 2010 Microbiology 101
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Saccharomyces cerevisiae Heliobacterium modesticaldum
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Capsule Composition: polysaccharide/polyamine Structure: not integral part of cell/can shear /stain via negative stain Utility: adherance/antiphagocytic
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Cell wall – All bacteria have a cell wall (except mycoplasmas) – Major component ->up to 35% of the dry weight of a cell is CW
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Cell morphology
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Cell morphology & cell arrangement
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Cell morphology & cell arrangement
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CW structure: Peptidoglycan:N-acetylglucosamine/N-acetylmuramic acid Tetrapeptide Cross bridge/Transpeptidation Schematic drawing of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan
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Peptidoglycan
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Protoplasts & spheroplasts: Lysozyme--> b 1-4 glycoside bond Protoplast/Spheroplast A few bacteria don’t have a CW (e.g. mycoplasmas)
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Cell wall Two distinct types of CW -->first discovered by Christian Gram Pure culture-->Gram stain--> ?
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• Gram stain/differential stain – Thin smear/young culture/controls/reagents – Procedure: Destain (EtOH) – Result: purple cells (Gram +) /pink cells (Gram -) Gram positive Gram negative
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Gram stain Structural basis: EM 1940s Purple cells: single, thick layer Pink cells:three layers, thinner
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Gram stain Chemical basis: Purple cells: ~90% peptidoglycan (teichoic acid) Schematic of Gram positive CW
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Peptidoglycan cross bridge in Gram positive CW
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Gram stain Chemical basis: – Pink cells: ~10 % peptidoglycan also have: lipids/proteins/polysaccharides Schematic of Gram negative CW
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Peptidoglycan cross bridge in Gram negative CW
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Gram-: Petidoglycan/Lipid/protein/sugar Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Lipid A/core polysaccharide /O-specific polysaccharide Endotoxin==>Lipid A portion of cell wall (LPS) Schematic of LPS
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Periplasm: Enzymes/Binding proteins/Chemoreceptors
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Gram stain/differential stain Thin smear/young culture/controls/reagents Gram stain theories: Lipid solubility Petidoglycan dehydration CV-mordant complex
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Gram stain: Cell morphology & arrangement Gram variable
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bacillus coryneform filamentous vibrio sporeformer spirillum coccus diplococcal streptococcal sarcinal staphylococcal
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ASM News 71 2005 Cytoskeletal structures in bacterial cells. (A) Crescentin in Caulobacter crescentus . The crescentin filamentous structure (red) is located along the concave edge of the comma-shaped cells, in which DNA (blue) has been co- labeled with DAPI. (Reproduced with permission from Ausmees, Kuhn and Jacobs-Wagner, 2003, Cell 115: 707.) (B) Mbl protein of B. subtilis. The helical Mbl structure, visualized by immunofluorescence, is visible along the length of the cell and appears to be composed of two intertwined helices. (Reproduced with permission from Jones, Carballido-Lopez and Errington, 2001, Cell 104: 916.) (C) MreB protein of E. coli. The double helical organization of the E. coli Yfp-MreB protein is visualized in
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12 Procaryotae F10 - Microbiology 101 GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY...

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