CHAPTER_12__cardiovascular_cancer

CHAPTER_12__cardiovascular_cancer - CHAPTER 12...

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CHAPTER 12 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, Cancer I. An Epidemiological Overview. A. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the number one cause of death in the U.S., accounting for almost 40 percent of all deaths. 1. The costs of CVD are staggering, in 2003 cardiovascular disease cost $351.8 billion. 2. CPR, advances in medical techniques, education, clot busting drugs, changes in diet and exercise, and better treatment and diagnostic procedures have aided in reducing CVD. 3. Reducing risk factors is important because combinations of risk factors seem to be multiplicative and not additive, so reducing several risk factors can have a dramatic effect. II. Understanding the Cardiovascular System. A. The cardiovascular system is a network of vessels through which blood flows as it carries oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. 1. The heart is a muscular, four chambered organ designed to pump the blood through the body. It usually contracts 100,000 times per day. 2. The body contains approximately 6 quarts of blood. 3. The anatomy of the heart is complex. (See Figure 12.2) a. The upper chambers are the atria, and receive blood from the rest of the body. b. The ventricles are the lower chambers that pump blood out again. c. The tricuspid, mitral, and pulmonary permit blood flow only in one direction. 4. Heart activity is as follows: a. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium after having been circulated through the body. b. From the right atrium, blood moves to the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs to receive oxygen. c. Oxygenated blood from the lungs then returns to the left atrium. d. Blood from the left atrium moves into the left ventricle. e. The left ventricle pumps the blood through the aorta to all body parts. 5. Arteries carry blood away from the heart with the exception of the OUTLINE
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pulmonary arteries. a. They divide into arterioles and capillaries (responsible for oxygen exchange). 6. Veins and venules carry the carbon dioxide and waste products to the lungs and kidneys. 7. The sinoatrial node, located in the right atrium, keeps the beat regular. III. Types of Cardiovascular Disease. A. Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis and is characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin (a blood clotting material) in the inner lining of the artery. 1. It is characterized by the build-up of plaque. 2. Plaque develops over time, and begins when we are children. 3. Scientists believe that damage occurs to the protective inner lining of the artery (endothelium) and that fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the blood got deposited in the damaged area. 4. Atherosclerosis is now being regarded as an inflammatory disease by scientists, with numerous factors contributing to plaque formation.
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