CHAPTER_13__INFECTIOUS_and_NONINFECTIOUS_CONDITIONS

CHAPTER_13__INFECTIOUS_and_NONINFECTIOUS_CONDITIONS -...

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CHAPTER 13: INFECTIOUS and NONINFECTIOUS CONDITIONS OUTLINE I. Assessing Your Disease Risks. A. Most diseases are multifactorial, involving host susceptibility, an agent which is responsible for the infection and environmental factors which favor the disease process. (see Figure 14.1 for body’s defenses) B. There are some risk factors over which you have little or no control. 1. The best predictor of our longevity is our parent’s longevity. 2. As we age our immune systems respond less efficiently to invading organisms. 3. Environmental conditions can have an effect on our immunological competence, which is the body’s ability to defend itself against pathogens. 4. Some organisms have mutated and are resistant to our defenses. C. Risk factors such as stress, nutrition, lack of activity, drug abuse, personal hygiene, and other high risk behaviors can be controlled. (See list) II. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission. A. There are several ways in which a pathogen can be transmitted. 1. Direct contact with an infected person through sexual contact, kissing, touching. a. Hands are the greatest source of infectious disease transmission. b. Frequent hand washing in schools reduces incidence of colds & flu. 2. Indirect contact includes touching an object used by an infected person, such as using a comb used by someone with lice. 3. Autoinoculation is transmission of a pathogen from one part of your body to another. 4. Airborne infection is from inhaling the droplet spray from a sneeze or breathing in air that carries a particular pathogen. 5. Food-borne infections occur as a result of eating something contaminated with microorganisms. 6. Animal-borne pathogens can occur from pets, insects, livestock and wild animals through interspecies transmission. 7. Water-borne diseases are transmitted directly from drinking water, indirectly from foods washed or sprayed with contaminated water, or from swimming in contaminated water. B. Bacteria are single-celled organisms with a cell wall. 1. Three main types are cocci, bacilli, and spirilla.
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2. Staphylococcal infections occur when the bacteria enters the body through a break in the skin and can cause a localized infection. a. Toxic shock syndrome is a staph infection that is potentially fatal. 3. Streptococcal infections usually occur in the throat, but can cause Scarlet fever and rheumatic fever. a. Group A strep causes most of the common diseases such as strip throat. b. Group B strep can cause illness in newborn babies, pregnant women, the elderly, and adults with other illnesses such as diabetes or liver disease. 4. One of the most common forms of pneumonia is bacterial and is readily treated with antibiotics. 5.
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CHAPTER_13__INFECTIOUS_and_NONINFECTIOUS_CONDITIONS -...

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