Chapter 17 - 17 ChapterOutline...

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17 PROCESSES OF EVOLUTION Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: RISE OF THE SUPER  RATS 17.1 INDIVIDUALS DON’T EVOLVE,  POPULATIONS DO Variations in Populations The Gene Pool Mutation Revisited Stability and Change in Allele  Frequencies 17.2 WHEN IS A POPULATION  NOT  EVOLVING? 17.3 NATURAL SELECTION REVISITED 17.4 DIRECTIONAL SELECTION 17.5 SELECTION AGAINST OR IN FAVOR  OF EXTREME PHENOTYPES Stabilizing Selection Disruptive Selection 17.6 MAINTAINING  VARIATION Sexual Selection Balanced Polymorphism 17.7 GENETIC DRIFT—THE CHANCE  CHANGES Bottlenecks and the Founder Effect Inbred Populations 17.8 GENE FLOW 17.9 POPULATION ISOLATION Species and Speciation Prezygotic Isolating Mechanism Postzygotic Isolating Mechanisms 17.10 ALLOPATRIC SPECIATION The Inviting Archipelagos 17.11 OTHER SPECIATION MODELS Sympatric Speciation Isolation at Hybrid Zones 17.12 MACROEVOLUTION The Rate of Evolutionary Change Patterns of Macroevolution Evolutionary Theory 17.13 FOR THE BIRDS—FOCUS ON  EVOLUTION 17.14 ADAPTION TO WHAT? Salt Tolerant Tomatoes No Polar Bears in the Desert Adaptation to What? A Word of Caution SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Processes of Evolution 145
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Objectives 1. Understand  the role of variation  in populations and  the relationship  to change. 2. Understand  as well  as you  can  the  ideas  and  evidence  that  biologists  use  to explain  how  life  might have changed  through  time. 3. Understand  how  variation  occurs in populations  and  how  changes  in allele frequencies can be  measured  using the Hardy-Weinberg formula. 4. Know  how  mutations,  gene  flow,  and  population  size  can  influence  the  rate  and  direction  of  population  change.   5. Describe the kinds of selection mechanisms  that help shape  populations. 6. Understand  the role of isolating mechanisms  on populations and  evolution. 7. Understand  what  macroevolution  is and  the role it plays in species development. Key Terms adaptive radiation allele frequencies allopatric speciation antibiotics archipelago balanced   polymorphism behavioral isolation bottleneck coevolution directional selection disruptive selection emigration evolutionary   adaptation extinction fixation founder  effect gene flow gene pool genetic drift genetic equilibrium genotype gradualism Hardy-Weinberg  formula immigration inbreeding key innovation lethal mutation mass extinctions mechanical  isolation microevolution morphological  traits natural selection neutral mutation parapatric  speciation phenotype polymorphism polyploidy population postzygotic prezygotic punctuated   equilibrium qualitative quantitative reproductive  isolation sexual dimorphism sexual selection speciation stabilizing selection sympatric  speciation temporal isolation
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course BIOL 1409 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Dallas Colleges.

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Chapter 17 - 17 ChapterOutline...

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