Chapter 30 - 30 NEURALCONTROL ChapterOutline

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30 NEURAL CONTROL Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: IN PURSUIT OF ECSTASY 30.1 EVOLUTION OF NERVOUS SYSTEMS The Cnidarian Nerve Net Bilateral, Cephalized Systems The Vertebrate Nervous System 30.2 NEURONS—THE GREAT  COMMUNICATORS Neurons and Their Functional Zones Membrane Gradients and Potentials 30.3 A LOOK AT ACTION POTENTIALS Approaching Threshold An All-Or-Nothing Spike Direction of Propagation 30.4 HOW NEURONS SEND MESSAGES TO  OTHER CELLS Chemical Synapses Synaptic Integration 30.5 A SMORGASBORD OF SIGNALS Neurotransmitter Diversity The Neuropeptides Cleaning the Cleft 30.6 DRUGS AND DISRUPTED SIGNALING Stimulants Depressants Analgesics Hallucinogens 30.7 ORGANIZATION OF NEURONS IN  NERVOUS SYSTEMS Blocks and Cables of Neurons Reflex Arcs 30.8 WHAT ARE THE MAJOR  EXPRESSWAYS? Peripheral Nervous System Somatic and Autonomic Subdivisions Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nerves Spinal Cord 30.9 THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN The Brain’s Subdivisions Protection at the Blood–Brain Barrier The Human Brain   30.10 THE HUMAN CEREBRUM Functional Areas of the Cortex Connections with the Limbic System Making Memories 30.11 NEUROGLIA SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING 8 Chapter Thirty
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Objectives 1. Compare and contrast invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. 2. Describe the visible structure of neurons, neuroglia, nerves, and ganglia, both separately and together as a  system. 3. Understand the distribution of the invisible array of proteins, ions, and other molecules in a neuron, both at  rest and as a neuron experiences a change in potential. 4. Understand how a nerve impulse is received by a neuron, conducted along a neuron, and transmitted  across a synapse to a neighboring neuron, muscle, or gland. 5. List several ways by which information flow is regulated and integrated in the human body. 6. Describe the organization of peripheral versus central nervous systems. 7. Identify the parts of primitive brains, and explain how the human brain is more advanced. Key Terms acetylcholine action potential afferent axons all-or-nothing event analgesics association areas autonomic nerves axon blood–brain barrier brain stem central nervous system cephalization cerebellum cerebral cortex cerebrospinal fluid cerebrum chemical synapses conducting zone converging circuits cranial nerves declarative memory dendrites depressants diverging circuits drug addiction efferent axons endorphins enkephalins fight–flight response forebrain ganglion gray matter growth factors hallucinogens hindbrain hypothalamus input zones interneurons limbic system long-term memory medulla oblongata midbrain motor neurons muscle spindles  myelin sheath nerve net nerves nervous system neuroglia neuromodulators neurotransmitters output zones
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course BIOL 1409 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Dallas Colleges.

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Chapter 30 - 30 NEURALCONTROL ChapterOutline

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