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33 STRUCTURAL SUPPORT AND  MOVEMENT Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: PUMPING UP MUSCLES 33.1 ANIMAL SKELETONS 33.2 ZOOMING IN ON BONES AND  JOINTS Bone Structure and Function Bone Formation and Remodeling Where Bone Meet-Skeletal Joints 33.3 SKELETAL–MUSCULAR SYSTEMS 33.4 HOW DOES SKELETAL MUSCLE  CONTRACT? Fine Structure of Skeletal Muscle Sliding-Filament Model for Contraction 33.5 FROM SIGNAL TO RESPONSES Nervous Control of Contraction Motor Units and Muscle Tension Exercise and Aging Energy for Contraction Muscular Dystrophies 33.6 OH, CLOSTRIDIUM! SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Objectives 1. Compare   invertebrate   and   vertebrate   motor   systems   in   terms   of   skeletal   and   muscular   components  and  their interactions. 2. Describe the details of bone construction. 3. Explain in detail the structure  of muscles, from the molecular level to the organ systems level.  4. Explain  how  biochemical  events  occur  in  muscle  contractions  and  how  antagonistic  muscle  action refines movements. 5. Describe the impact of exercise, disease, and  aging on bone and  muscles.  Structural Support  and  Movement 39
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Key Terms actin appendicular  skeleton axial skeleton bone remodeling bones cartilage compact bone endoskeleton exoskeleton hydrostatic skeleton intervertebral disks joints ligaments motor unit muscular dystrophies muscle fatigue muscle fiber muscle tension muscle twitch myofibrils myosin osteoporosis osteoblasts osteoclasts osteocytes red marrow sarcomeres sarcoplasmic reticulum skeletal muscle sliding-filament  model spongy  bone tendons tetanus vertebrae yellow marrow Lecture Outline Impacts, Issues: Pumping  Up Muscles A. Androstenedione  and  creatine are dietary supplements  used  by athletes and  body-builders. 1. “Andro”  can raise testosterone levels for a few hours, but controlled  studies did  not  shown  it to be effective in increasing muscle mass. 2. Creatine can improve performance during  brief, high-intensity exercise. B. The long-term effects of these chemicals are not known  because they have not been tested  by  the FDA; they don’t have to be because they are not technically “drugs.” 33.1 Animal Skeletons A. Skeletons support  the body. 1. Animals move by the action of muscles, which need  some medium  or structural element  against which the force of contraction can be applied 2. There are three main types of skeletons in animals. a. In  hydrostatic skeletons,  the force of contraction is applied  against internal fluids;  examples are sea anemones and  earthworms. b.
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This note was uploaded on 03/07/2011 for the course BIOL 1409 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at Dallas Colleges.

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