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Chapter 36 - 36 RESPIRATION ChapterOutline...

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36 RESPIRATION Chapter Outline IMPACTS, ISSUES: UP IN SMOKE 36.1 THE NATURE OF RESPIRATION The Basis of Gas Exchange Factors Influencing Gas Exchange Surface-to-Volume  Ratio Ventilation Respiratory Pigments 36.2 INVERTEBRATE RESPIRATION 36.3 VERTEBRATE RESPIRATION Vertebrate Gills Evolution of Paired Lungs 36.4 HUMAN  RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  The System’s Many Functions From Airways to Alveoli 36.5 GAS EXCHANGE AND  TRANSPORT The Respiratory Membrane Oxygen Transport Carbon Dioxide Transport The Carbon Monoxide Threat 36.6 CYCLIC REVERSALS IN AIR PRESSURE  GRADIENTS The Respiratory Cycle Respiratory Volumes Control of Breathing 36.7 RESPIRATORY DISEASES AND   DISORDERS Interrupted Breathing Potentially Deadly Infections Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema Smoking’s Impact 36.8 HIGH CLIMBERS AND  DEEP DIVERS Respiration at High Altitudes Deep-Sea Divers SUMMARY SELF-QUIZ CRITICAL THINKING Objectives 1. Understand  the  behavior  of gases  and  the  types  of respiratory  surfaces  that  participate  in gas  exchange.  2. Compare  the mechanisms  used  in invertebrate and  vertebrate respiration. 3. Understand  how  the  human  respiratory  system  is related  to the  circulatory  system,  to cellular   respiration, and  to the nervous  system.  4. Understand  how  respiration  can  be  disrupted  by  damage  to  respiratory  centers  in  the  brain,  physical obstructions, infectious disease, and  pollutants. 5. Explain  how  humans  and  other  animals  adapt  to  deal  with  high  altitude  and  deep  water   conditions. Respiration 67
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Key Terms acclimatization alveolus, -oli book lungs bronchioles bronchus, -chi carbonic anhydrase countercurrent  flow diaphragm epiglottis erythropoietin exhalation external gills gills glottis heme groups hemoglobin inhalation integumentary   exchange intercostal muscles internal gills larynx lungs myoglobin nasal cavities oxyhemoglobin, HbO 2 pharynx pleural membrane pressure gradients respiration respiratory  cycle respiratory  membrane respiratory  proteins respiration  surface surface-to-volume  ratio tidal volume trachea tracheal system ventilation vital capacity Lecture Outline Impacts, Issues: Up in Smoke A. The body reacts to tobacco smoke. 1. Immediately there is coughing, nausea, dizziness, and  even headaches. 2. Later, the cilia that line the respiratory tract are immobilized; white blood cells are  killed; colds and  bronchitis increase; and, of course, deadly  cancer is a long-term reward. B. The “active ingredient”  in this scenario is nicotine.
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